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Risk of complications and mortality following recurrent and non-recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a retrospective observational database study in England

Enoch, D. A., Murray-Thomas, T., Adomakoh, N., Dedman, D., Georgopali, A., Francis, N. A. and Karas, A. 2020. Risk of complications and mortality following recurrent and non-recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a retrospective observational database study in England. Journal of Hospital Infection 106 (4) , pp. 793-803. 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.09.025

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Abstract

Background Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) increases the risk of complications and mortality. We assessed the magnitude of these outcomes in a large cohort of English patients with initial and recurrent CDI. Aim To compare the risk of complications and all-cause mortality, within 12 months, among hospitalized patients ≥18 years old with hospital-associated- (HA-) CDI and recurrent CDI. Methods Patients with HA-CDI during 2002–2013 were identified using inpatient hospital data linked to primary care and death data. Each HA-CDI case was frequency matched to two hospitalized patients without CDI on age group, sex, calendar year of admission, admission method and number of hospital care episodes. A second CDI episode starting on days 13–56 was defined as recurrence. Risks of mortality and complications at 12 months were analysed using Cox proportional hazard models. Findings We included 6862 patients with HA-CDI and 13,724 without CDI. Median age was 81.0 years (IQR 71.0–87.0). Patients with HA-CDI had more comorbidities than those without CDI, and significantly higher risks of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.77 (1.67–1.87)) and complications (1.66 (1.46–1.88)) within 12 months from hospital admission. Of those with HA-CDI, 1140 (16.6%) experienced CDI recurrence. Patients with recurrent versus non-recurrent CDI also had significantly increased risk of mortality (1.32 (1.20–1.45)) and complications (1.37 (1.01–1.84)) in the 12 months from the initial CDI. Conclusions HA-CDI (versus no CDI) and recurrent CDI are both associated with significantly higher risks of complications or death within 12 months of the initial CDI episode.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0195-6701
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 November 2021
Date of Acceptance: 20 September 2020
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2021 14:45
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/145311

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