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Intelligence, educational attainment, and brain structure in those at familial high-risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

Zwarte, Sonja M. C., Brouwer, Rachel M., Agartz, Ingrid, Alda, Martin, Alonso-Lana, Silvia, Bearden, Carrie E., Bertolino, Alessandro, Bonvino, Aurora, Bramon, Elvira, Buimer, Elizabeth E. L., Cahn, Wiepke, Canales-Rodríguez, Erick J., Cannon, Dara M., Cannon, Tyrone D., Caseras, Xavier, Castro-Fornieles, Josefina, Chen, Qiang, Chung, Yoonho, De la Serna, Elena, Mar Bonnin, Caterina, Demro, Caroline, Di Giorgio, Annabella, Doucet, Gaelle E., Eker, Mehmet Cagdas, Erk, Susanne, Fatjó-Vilas, Mar, Fears, Scott C., Foley, Sonya F., Frangou, Sophia, Fullerton, Janice M., Glahn, David C., Goghari, Vina M., Goikolea, Jose M., Goldman, Aaron L., Gonul, Ali Saffet, Gruber, Oliver, Hajek, Tomas, Hawkins, Emma L., Heinz, Andreas, Hidiroglu Ongun, Ceren, Hillegers, Manon H. J., Houenou, Josselin, Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E., Hultman, Christina M., Ingvar, Martin, Johansson, Viktoria, Jönsson, Erik G., Kane, Fergus, Kempton, Matthew J., Koenis, Marinka M. G., Kopecek, Miloslav, Krämer, Bernd, Lawrie, Stephen M., Lenroot, Rhoshel K., Marcelis, Machteld, Mattay, Venkata S., McDonald, Colm, Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas, Michielse, Stijn, Mitchell, Philip B., Moreno, Dolores, Murray, Robin M., Mwangi, Benson, Nabulsi, Leila, Newport, Jason, Olman, Cheryl A., Os, Jim, Overs, Bronwyn J., Ozerdem, Aysegul, Pergola, Giulio, Picchioni, Marco M., Piguet, Camille, Pomarol-Clotet, Edith, Radua, Joaquim, Ramsay, Ian S., Richter, Anja, Roberts, Gloria, Salvador, Raymond, Saricicek Aydogan, Aybala, Sarró, Salvador, Schofield, Peter R., Simsek, Esma M., Simsek, Fatma, Soares, Jair C., Sponheim, Scott R., Sugranyes, Gisela, Toulopoulou, Timothea, Tronchin, Giulia, Vieta, Eduard, Walter, Henrik, Weinberger, Daniel R., Whalley, Heather C., Wu, Mon?Ju, Yalin, Nefize, Andreassen, Ole A., Ching, Christopher R. K., Thomopoulos, Sophia I., Erp, Theo G. M., Jahanshad, Neda, Thompson, Paul M., Kahn, René S. and Haren, Neeltje E. M. 2022. Intelligence, educational attainment, and brain structure in those at familial high-risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Human Brain Mapping 43 (1) , pp. 414-430. 10.1002/hbm.25206

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Abstract

First-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ-FDRs) show similar patterns of brain abnormalities and cognitive alterations to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. First-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD-FDRs) show divergent patterns; on average, intracranial volume is larger compared to controls, and findings on cognitive alterations in BD-FDRs are inconsistent. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of global and regional brain measures (cortical and subcortical), current IQ, and educational attainment in 5,795 individuals (1,103 SZ-FDRs, 867 BD-FDRs, 2,190 controls, 942 schizophrenia patients, 693 bipolar patients) from 36 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts, with standardized methods. Compared to controls, SZ-FDRs showed a pattern of widespread thinner cortex, while BD-FDRs had widespread larger cortical surface area. IQ was lower in SZ-FDRs (d = −0.42, p = 3 × 10−5), with weak evidence of IQ reductions among BD-FDRs (d = −0.23, p = .045). Both relative groups had similar educational attainment compared to controls. When adjusting for IQ or educational attainment, the group-effects on brain measures changed, albeit modestly. Changes were in the expected direction, with less pronounced brain abnormalities in SZ-FDRs and more pronounced effects in BD-FDRs. To conclude, SZ-FDRs and BD-FDRs show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities. In contrast, both had lower IQ scores and similar school achievements compared to controls. Given that brain differences between SZ-FDRs and BD-FDRs remain after adjusting for IQ or educational attainment, we suggest that differential brain developmental processes underlying predisposition for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are likely independent of general cognitive impairment.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Medicine
Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC)
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Publisher: Wiley Open Access
ISSN: 1065-9471
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 December 2021
Date of Acceptance: 3 September 2020
Last Modified: 21 Dec 2021 15:45
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/146210

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