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Assessment of fluoride and pH levels in a range of ready-to-drink children’s beverages marketed in Malaysia

Ahmad, A.S., Mohd Nor, N.A., Ahmad, N.A., Mohd Yusof, Z.Y. and Chestnutt, I.G. ORCID: 2021. Assessment of fluoride and pH levels in a range of ready-to-drink children’s beverages marketed in Malaysia. Archives of Orofacial Sciences 16 (2) , pp. 177-189. 10.21315/aos2021.16.2.8

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This study aimed to determine the fluoride and pH levels of beverages likely to be consumed by children in Malaysia and to estimate daily fluoride intake from consumption of these beverages. A convenience sampling of 120 ready-to-drink beverages were purchased and categorised into 11 groups (UHT recombined milk, fresh milk [pasteurised], cultured milk [probiotic], yogurt beverages, fresh fruit juices, fruit flavoured beverages, soy-based beverages, malt-based beverages, tea, carbonated beverages and bottled waters). Fluoride concentration was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode while the pH level was measured using a pH meter. The fluoride concentration in the beverages ranged from 0.02±0.00 mg/L to 2.77±0.06 mg/L. Tea was found to have the highest fluoride concentration. The intake of fluoride from consumption of other types of beverages is below the lowest-observed-adverseeffect level (except tea). The pH of the beverages included in the study ranged from 2.20±0.01 to 7.76±0.00. Carbonated beverages (mean pH: 2.98±0.50) were found to be extremely acidic followed by fresh fruit juices (mean pH: 3.38±0.34) and fruit flavoured beverages (mean pH: 3.90±0.92). The correlation between fluoride and pH levels was weak, τ = 0.058 and not statistically significant (p < 0.35). The majority of the beverages had a low fluoride level and their consumption is unlikely to cause fluorosis except for tea. Almost half of the beverages had a low pH level with carbonated beverages being the most acidic.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Additional Information: This work is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)(
Publisher: School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
ISSN: 2231-7163
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 8 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 24 June 2021
Last Modified: 12 May 2023 11:55

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