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Longitudinal trajectories of quality of life among people with mild-to-moderate dementia: a latent growth model approach with IDEAL cohort study data

Clare, Linda, Gamble, Laura D., Martyr, Anthony, Sabatini, Serena, Nelis, Sharon M., Quinn, Catherine, Pentecost, Claire, Victor, Christina, Jones, Roy W., Jones, Ian R. ORCID:, Knapp, Martin, Litherland, Rachael, Morris, Robin G., Rusted, Jennifer M., Thom, Jeanette M., Collins, Rachel, Henderson, Catherine and Matthews, Fiona E. 2022. Longitudinal trajectories of quality of life among people with mild-to-moderate dementia: a latent growth model approach with IDEAL cohort study data. Journals of Gerontology, Series B 77 (6) , pp. 1037-1050. 10.1093/geronb/gbac022

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Objectives We aimed to examine change over time in self-rated quality of life (QoL) in people with mild-to-moderate dementia and identify sub-groups with distinct QoL trajectories. Method We used data from people with mild-to-moderate dementia followed up at 12 and 24 months in the IDEAL cohort study (baseline n=1537). A latent growth model approach examined mean change over time in QoL, assessed with the QoL-AD scale, and investigated associations of baseline demographic, cognitive and psychological covariates with the intercept and slope of QoL. We employed growth mixture modelling to identify multiple growth trajectories. Results Overall mean QoL scores were stable and no associations with change over time were observed. Four classes of QoL trajectories were identified: two with higher baseline QoL scores, labelled Stable (74.9%) and Declining (7.6%), and two with lower baseline QoL scores, labelled Stable Lower (13.7%) and Improving (3.8%). The Declining class had higher baseline levels of depression and loneliness, and lower levels of self-esteem and optimism, than the Stable class. The Stable Lower class was characterised by disadvantage related to social structure, poor physical health, functional disability, and low psychological well-being. The Improving class was similar to the Stable Lower class but had lower cognitive test scores. Discussion Understanding individual trajectories can contribute to personalised care planning. Efforts to prevent decline in perceived QoL should primarily target psychological well-being. Efforts to improve QoL for those with poorer QoL should additionally address functional impairment, isolation, and disadvantage related to social structure.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Social Sciences (Includes Criminology and Education)
Wales Institute of Social & Economic Research, Data & Methods (WISERD)
Additional Information: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
ISSN: 1079-5014
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 9 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 13 January 2022
Last Modified: 07 May 2023 14:42

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