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Growth and neurodevelopment in low birth weight versus normal birth weight infants from birth to 24 months, born in an obstetric emergency hospital in Haiti, a prospective cohort study

Hilaire, Marjorie, Andrianou, Xanthi D., Lenglet, Annick, Ariti, Cono, Charles, Kessiane, Buitenhuis, Sonja, Van Brusselen, Daan, Roggeveen, Harriet, Ledger, Elizabeth, Denat, Rodnie Selva and Bryson, Lindsay 2021. Growth and neurodevelopment in low birth weight versus normal birth weight infants from birth to 24 months, born in an obstetric emergency hospital in Haiti, a prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatrics 21 (1) , 143. 10.1186/s12887-021-02605-3

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Abstract

Background Low birthweight (LBW) infants are at higher risk of mortality and morbidity (growth, chronic disease and neurological problems) during their life. Due to the high incidence of (pre-) eclampsia in Haiti, LBW infants are common. We assessed the anthropometric growth (weight and length) and neurodevelopmental delay in LBW and normal birthweight (NBW) infants born at an obstetric emergency hospital in Port au Prince, Haiti, between 2014 and 2017. Methods Infants were followed at discharge and 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months of corrected gestational age. At each visit they underwent a physical checkup (weight, length, physical abnormalities, identification of morbidities). At 6, 12, 18 and 24 months they underwent a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Bayley Scale III (motor, cognitive and communication skills). We modelled the trajectories between birth and 24 months of age of NBW compared to LBW infants for weight, length, and raw scores for Bayley III assessments using mixed linear models. Results In total 500 LBW and 210 NBW infants were recruited of which 333 (46.7%) were followed up for 24 months (127 NBW; 60.5% and 206 LBW; 41.2%) and 150 died (LBW = 137 and NBW = 13). LBW and NBW babies gained a mean 15.8 g and 11.4 g per kg of weight from discharge per day respectively. The speed of weight gain decreased rapidly after 3 months in both groups. Both groups grow rapidly up to 6 months of age. LBW grew more than the NBW group during this period (22.8 cm vs. 21.1 cm). Both groups had WHZ scores <− 2 up to 15 months. At 24 months NBW babies scored significantly higher on the Bayley scales for gross motor, cognitive and receptive and expressive communication skills. There was no difference between the groups for fine motor skills. Conclusion LBW babies that survive neonatal care in urban Haiti and live up to 24 months of age, perform similar to their NBW for weight, length and fine motor skills. LBW babies are delayed in gross motor, cognitive and communication skills development. Further research on the clinical significance of these findings and long term implications of this neurodevelopmental delay is needed.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Centre for Trials Research (CNTRR)
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1471-2431
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 10 March 2021
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2022 12:00
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/147549

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