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Multi-drug resistance and high mortality associated with community-acquired bloodstream infections in children in conflict-affected northwest Nigeria

Chukwumeze, Frederick, Lenglet, Annick, Olubiyo, Ruth, Lawal, Abdulhakeem Mohammed, Oluyide, Bukola, Oloruntuyi, Gbemisola, Ariti, Cono, Gomez, Diana, Roggeveen, Harriet, Nwankwo, Chijioke, Augustine, Nwogu Ahamba, Egwuenu, Abiodun, Maloba, Guy, Sherlock, Mark, Muhammad, Shoaib, Wertheim, Heiman, Hopman, Joost and Clezy, Kate 2021. Multi-drug resistance and high mortality associated with community-acquired bloodstream infections in children in conflict-affected northwest Nigeria. Scientific Reports 11 (1) , 20814. 10.1038/s41598-021-00149-1

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Abstract

Pediatric community-acquired bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs) in sub Saharan African humanitarian contexts are rarely documented. Effective treatment of these infections is additionally complicated by increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. We describe the findings from epidemiological and microbiological surveillance implemented in pediatric patients with suspected CA-BSIs presenting for care at a secondary hospital in the conflict affected area of Zamfara state, Nigeria. Any child (> 2 months of age) presenting to Anka General Hospital from November 2018 to August 2020 with clinical severe sepsis at admission had clinical and epidemiological information and a blood culture collected at admission. Bacterial isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. We calculated frequencies of epidemiological, microbiological and clinical parameters. We explored risk factors for death amongst severe sepsis cases using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression, adjusting for time between admission and hospital exit. We included 234 severe sepsis patients with 195 blood culture results. There were 39 positive blood cultures. Of the bacterial isolates, 14 were Gram positive and 18 were Gram negative; 5 were resistant to empiric antibiotics: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; n = 2) and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase positive enterobacterales (n = 3). We identified no significant association between sex, age-group, ward, CA-BSI, appropriate intravenous antibiotic, malaria positivity at admission, suspected focus of sepsis, clinical severity and death in the multivariable regression. There is an urgent need for access to good clinical microbiological services, including point of care methods, and awareness and practice around rational antibiotic in healthcare staff in humanitarian settings to reduce morbidity and mortality from sepsis in children.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Centre for Trials Research (CNTRR)
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Publisher: Nature Research
ISSN: 2045-2322
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 7 October 2021
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2022 12:15
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/147550

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