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Prevalence and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance among newborns with gram-negative sepsis

Solomon, Semaria, Akeju, Oluwasefunmi, Odumade, Oludare A., Ambachew, Rozina, Gebreyohannes, Zenebe, Van Wickle, Kimi, Abayneh, Mahlet, Metaferia, Gesit, Carvalho, Maria J., Thomson, Kathryn, Sands, Kirsty, Walsh, Timothy R., Milton, Rebecca, Goddard, Frederick G. B., Bekele, Delayehu and Chan, Grace J. 2021. Prevalence and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance among newborns with gram-negative sepsis. PLoS ONE 16 (8) , e0255410. 10.1371/journal.pone.0255410

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Introduction Newborn sepsis accounts for more than a third of neonatal deaths globally and one in five neonatal deaths in Ethiopia. The first-line treatment recommended by WHO is the combination of gentamicin with ampicillin or benzylpenicillin. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are increasingly resistant to previously effective antibiotics. Objectives Our goal was to estimate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteremia and identify risk factors for antibiotic resistance, among newborns with GNB sepsis. Methods At a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia, we enrolled a cohort pregnant women and their newborns, between March and December 2017. Newborns who were followed up until 60 days of life for clinical signs of sepsis. Among the newborns with clinical signs of sepsis, blood samples were cultured; bacterial species were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. We described the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, identified newborn, maternal, and environmental factors associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), and combined resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (AmpGen), using multivariable regression. Results Of the 119 newborns with gram-negative bacteremia, 80 (67%) were born preterm and 82 (70%) had early-onset sepsis. The most prevalent gram-negative species were Klebsiella pneumoniae 94 (79%) followed by Escherichia coli 10 (8%). Ampicillin resistance was found in 113 cases (95%), cefotaxime 104 (87%), gentamicin 101 (85%), AmpGen 101 (85%), piperacillin-tazobactam 47 (39%), amikacin 10 (8.4%), and Imipenem 1 (0.8%). Prevalence of MDR was 88% (n = 105). Low birthweight and late-onset sepsis (LOS) were associated with higher risks of AmpGen-resistant infections. All-cause mortality was higher among newborns treated with ineffective antibiotics. Conclusion There was significant resistance to current first-line antibiotics and cephalosporins. Additional data are needed from primary care and community settings. Amikacin and piperacillin-tazobactam had lower rates of resistance; however, context-specific assessments of their potential adverse effects, their local availability, and cost-effectiveness would be necessary before selecting a new first-line regimen to help guide clinical decision-making.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Centre for Trials Research (CNTRR)
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
Publisher: Public Library of Science
ISSN: 1932-6203
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 16 July 2021
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2022 12:15

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