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A retrospective epidemiological study of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Wales, UK between 2008 and 2018

Rafferty, James, Stephens, Jeffery W., Atkinson, Mark D., Luzio, Stephen D., Akbari, Ashley, Gregory, John W., Bain, Stephen, Owens, David R. and Thomas, Rebecca L. 2021. A retrospective epidemiological study of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Wales, UK between 2008 and 2018. International Journal of Population Data Science 6 (1) , 13. 10.23889/ijpds.v6i1.1387

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Introduction Studies of prevalence and the demographic profile of type 1 diabetes are challenging because of the relative rarity of the condition, however, these outcomes can be determined using routine healthcare data repositories. Understanding the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes allows for targeted interventions and care of this life-affecting condition. Objectives To describe the prevalence, incidence and demographics of persons with type 1 diabetes diagnosed in Wales, UK, using the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. Methods Data derived from primary and secondary care throughout Wales available in the SAIL Databank were used to identify people with type 1 diabetes to determine the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes over a 10 year period (2008–18) and describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of this population by age, socioeconomic deprivation and settlement type. The seasonal variation in incidence rates was also examined. Results The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in 2018 was 0.32% in the whole population, being greater in men compared to women (0.35% vs 0.28% respectively); highest in those aged 15-29 years (0.52%) and living in the most socioeconomically deprived areas (0.38%). The incidence of type 1 diabetes over 10 years was 14.0 cases/100,000 people/year for the whole population of Wales. It was highest in children aged 0-14 years (33.6 cases/100,000 people/year) and areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (16.8 cases/100,000 people/year) and least in those aged 45-60 years (6.5 cases/100,000 people/year) and in areas of low socioeconomic deprivation (11.63 cases/100,000 people/year). A seasonal trend in the diagnoses of type 1 diabetes was observed with higher incidence in winter months. Conclusion This nation-wide retrospective epidemiological study using routine data revealed that the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Wales was greatest in those aged 0-14 years with a higher incidence and prevalence in the most deprived areas. These findings illustrate the need for health-related policies targeted at high deprivation areas to include type 1 diabetes in their remit.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: Open Access under CC BY 4.0 (
Publisher: Swansea University
ISSN: 2399-4908
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 22 January 2021
Last Modified: 25 Feb 2022 13:06

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