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IL-1β and HMGB1 are anti-neurogenic to endogenous neural stem cells in the sclerotic epileptic human hippocampus

Zaben, Malik ORCID:, Haan, Niels, Sharouf, Feras ORCID:, Ahmed, Aminul, Sundstrom, Lars E. and Gray, William P. ORCID: 2021. IL-1β and HMGB1 are anti-neurogenic to endogenous neural stem cells in the sclerotic epileptic human hippocampus. Journal of Neuroinflammation 18 (1) , 218. 10.1186/s12974-021-02265-1

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Background: The dentate gyrus exhibits life-long neurogenesis of granule-cell neurons, supporting hippocampal dependent learning and memory. Both temporal lobe epilepsy patients and animal models frequently have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory difficulties and show evidence of reduced neurogenesis. Animal and human temporal lobe epilepsy studies have also shown strong innate immune system activation, which in animal models reduces hippocampal neurogenesis. We sought to determine if and how neuroinflammation signals reduced neurogenesis in the epileptic human hippocampus and its potential reversibility. Methods: We isolated endogenous neural stem cells from surgically resected hippocampal tissue in 15 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We examined resultant neurogenesis after growing them either as neurospheres in an ideal environment, in 3D cultures which preserved the inflammatory microenvironment and/or in 2D cultures which mimicked it. Results: 3D human hippocampal cultures largely replicated the cellular composition and inflammatory environment of the epileptic hippocampus. The microenvironment of sclerotic human epileptic hippocampal tissue is strongly anti-neurogenic, with sustained release of the proinflammatory proteins HMGB1 and IL-1β. IL-1β and HMGB1 significantly reduce human hippocampal neurogenesis and blockade of their IL-1R and TLR 2/4 receptors by IL1Ra and Box-A respectively, significantly restores neurogenesis in 2D and 3D culture. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a HMGB1 and IL-1β-mediated environmental anti-neurogenic effect in human TLE, identifying both the IL-1R and TLR 2/4 receptors as potential drug targets for restoring human hippocampal neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1742-2094
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 28 February 2022
Date of Acceptance: 30 August 2021
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2022 10:42

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