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Optimising sounds for the driving of sleep oscillations by closed‐loop auditory stimulation

Debellemanière, Eden, Pinaud, Clémence, Schneider, Jules, Arnal, Pierrick J., Casson, Alexander J., Chennaoui, Mounir, Galtier, Mathieu, Navarrete, Miguel and Lewis, Penelope A. ORCID: 2022. Optimising sounds for the driving of sleep oscillations by closed‐loop auditory stimulation. Journal of Sleep Research 10.1111/jsr.13676

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Recent studies have shown that slow oscillations (SOs) can be driven by rhythmic auditory stimulation, which deepens slow‐wave sleep (SWS) and improves memory and the immune‐supportive hormonal milieu related to this sleep stage. While different attempts have been made to optimise the driving of the SOs by changing the number of click stimulations, no study has yet investigated the impact of applying more than five clicks in a row. Likewise, the importance of the type of sounds in eliciting brain responses is presently unclear. In a study of 12 healthy young participants (10 females; aged 18–26 years), we applied an established closed‐loop stimulation method, which delivered sequences of 10 pink noises, 10 pure sounds (B note of 247 Hz), 10 pronounced “a” vowels, 10 sham, 10 variable sounds, and 10 “oddball” sounds on the up phase of the endogenous SOs. By analysing area under the curve, amplitude, and event related potentials, we explored whether the nature of the sound had a differential effect on driving SOs. We showed that every stimulus in a 10‐click sequence, induces a SO response. Interestingly, all three types of sounds that we tested triggered SOs. However, pink noise elicited a more pronounced response compared to the other sounds, which was explained by a broader topographical recruitment of brain areas. Our data further suggest that varying the sounds may partially counteract habituation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 0962-1105
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 29 June 2022
Date of Acceptance: 1 June 2022
Last Modified: 23 May 2023 23:48

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