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Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: Properties, physiological roles, metabolic engineering and intentional control

Chen, Guanqun, Harwood, John L. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2377-2612, Lemieux, M. Joanne, Stone, Scot J. and Weselake, Randall J. 2022. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: Properties, physiological roles, metabolic engineering and intentional control. Progress in Lipid Research 88 , 101181. 10.1016/j.plipres.2022.101181

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Abstract

Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the last reaction in the acyl-CoA-dependent biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). DGAT activity resides mainly in DGAT1 and DGAT2 in eukaryotes and bifunctional wax ester synthase-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WSD) in bacteria, which are all membrane-bound proteins but exhibit no sequence homology to each other. Recent studies also identified other DGAT enzymes such as the soluble DGAT3 and diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT), as well as enzymes with DGAT activities including defective in cuticular ridges (DCR) and steryl and phytyl ester synthases (PESs). This review comprehensively discusses research advances on DGATs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes with a focus on their biochemical properties, physiological roles, and biotechnological and therapeutic applications. The review begins with a discussion of DGAT assay methods, followed by a systematic discussion of TAG biosynthesis and the properties and physiological role of DGATs. Thereafter, the review discusses the three-dimensional structure and insights into mechanism of action of human DGAT1, and the modeled DGAT1 from Brassica napus. The review then examines metabolic engineering strategies involving manipulation of DGAT, followed by a discussion of its therapeutic applications. DGAT in relation to improvement of traits of farmed animals is also discussed along with DGATs in various other eukaryotic organisms.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0163-7827
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 13 September 2022
Date of Acceptance: 4 July 2022
Last Modified: 11 Nov 2022 09:00
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/152514

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