Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Delivering an mHealth adherence support intervention for patients with HIV: Mixed methods process evaluation of the Philippines connect for life study

O'Connor, Cara, Leyritana, Katerina, Doyle, Aoife M, Birdthistle, Isolde, Lewis, James J ORCID:, Gill, Randeep and Salvaña, Edsel Maurice 2022. Delivering an mHealth adherence support intervention for patients with HIV: Mixed methods process evaluation of the Philippines connect for life study. JMIR Formative Research 6 (8) , e37163. 10.2196/37163

[thumbnail of JL Paper.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (716kB) | Preview


Background: The Philippines HIV epidemic is one of the fastest growing epidemics globally, and infections among men who have sex with men are increasing at an alarming rate. Connect for Life Philippines is a mobile health (mHealth) intervention that supports antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in this key population through individualized voice calls and SMS text messages. Objective: The objective of this process evaluation is to assess the intervention reach, dose delivered and received, fidelity, and acceptability and to describe contextual factors affecting the implementation of an mHealth adherence support intervention for patients on ART in a clinic in Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods: A mixed methods process evaluation approach was used in an observational cohort study. Quantitative data sources for the process evaluation were call and SMS text message logs obtained from the mHealth platform and questionnaires collected at 12-, 24-, and 48-week study visits. Qualitative data were collected from process reports and through a series of focus group discussions conducted with a subset of participants during the intervention development phase, after an initial 8-week pilot phase, and at the end of the study. Results: The 462 study participants received 31,095 interactive voice calls and 8234 SMS text messages during the study. Owing to technical issues, intervention fidelity was low, with only 22.1% (102/462) of the participants receiving reminders via voice calls and others (360/462, 77.9%) receiving only SMS text messages during the intervention. After 48 weeks in the study, 63.5% (293/462) of the participants reported that they would be quite likely or very likely to recommend the program to a friend, and 53.8% (249/462) of the participants reported that they benefited quite a bit or very much from the intervention. Participants who were on ART for <6 months at the beginning of the study and those who received the daily or weekly pill reminders were more likely to report that they benefited from the intervention (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively). Conclusions: The Connect for Life intervention had high participant satisfaction and acceptability, especially among those who received high dose of the intervention. However, poor reliability of local telecommunication networks had a large impact on the intervention’s usability, fidelity, and dose received

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Social Sciences (Includes Criminology and Education)
Additional Information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
Publisher: JMIR Publications
ISSN: 2561-326X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 28 September 2022
Date of Acceptance: 22 June 2022
Last Modified: 06 May 2023 23:50

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics