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Online hate speech targeting the England women's football team during the UEFA Women's Euro 2022

Cullen, Arron ORCID: and Williams, Matthew ORCID: 2022. Online hate speech targeting the England women's football team during the UEFA Women's Euro 2022. [Project Report]. HateLab. Available at:

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Following the Euro 2020 final, HateLab reported on the racist messages posted on social media targeting members of England’s team. In anticipation of a similar response to the UEFA Women’s Euro 2022, HateLab conducted real-time monitoring of online content posted in the build-up to and during the tournament (2nd May to 1st August 2022). This report presents an analysis of 78,141 social media posts directed toward individual members of the England women’s national football team. Using award-winning hate speech detection algorithms developed within HateLab, 380 posts were classified as either misogynistic or homophobic. While this report further evidences the continuing problem of online abuse directed at professional football players, it also highlights that hateful messages were outstripped by 50,422 posts that were classified as containing hopeful messages in support of the England team. This report builds upon HateLab’s hate speech and divisive disinformation programme that supports government departments, law enforcement and civil society organisations across the world in their online monitoring and response activities.

Item Type: Monograph (Project Report)
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Social Sciences (Includes Criminology and Education)
Publisher: HateLab
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 4 October 2022
Date of Acceptance: 1 August 2022
Last Modified: 10 Feb 2024 02:17

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