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Utilising cumulative antibiogram data to enhance antibiotic stewardship capacity in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana

Dakorah, Mavis Puopelle, Agyare, Elizabeth, Acolatse, Joseph Elikem Efui, Akafity, George, Stelling, John, Chalker, Victoria J., Spiller, Owen B. ORCID:, Aidoo, Nana Benyin, Kumi-Ansah, Frederick, Azumah, Daniel, Laryea, Stephen, Incoom, Robert and Ngyedu, Eric Kofi 2022. Utilising cumulative antibiogram data to enhance antibiotic stewardship capacity in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 11 , 122. 10.1186/s13756-022-01160-5

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health challenge with its impact felt disproportionately in Western Sub-Saharan Africa. Routine microbiology investigations serve as a rich source of AMR monitoring and surveillance data. Geographical variations in susceptibility patterns necessitate regional and institutional tracking of resistance patterns to aid in tailored Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) interventions to improve antibiotic use in such settings. This study focused on developing a cumulative antibiogram of bacterial isolates from clinical samples at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH). This was ultimately to improve AMS by guiding empiric therapy. Methods: A hospital-based longitudinal study involving standard microbiological procedures was conducted from 1st January to 31st December 2020. Isolates from routine diagnostic aerobic cultures were identified by colony morphology, Gram staining, and conventional biochemical tests. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Inhibitory zone diameters were interpreted per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and were entered and analysed on the WHONET software using the “first isolate only” principle. Results: Overall, low to moderate susceptibility was observed in most pathogen-antibiotic combinations analysed in the study. Amikacin showed the highest susceptibility (86%, n = 537/626) against all Gram-negatives with ampicillin exhibiting the lowest (6%, n = 27/480). Among the Gram-positives, the highest susceptibilities were exhibited by gentamicin (78%, n = 124/159), with clindamycin having the lowest susceptibility (27%, n = 41/154). Among the Gram-negatives, 66% (n = 426/648) of the isolates were identified phenotypically as potential extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Multiple multidrug-resistant isolates were also identified among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Low to moderate susceptibility was found against first- and second-line antibiotics recommended in the National standard treatment guidelines (NSTG). Laboratory quality management deficiencies and a turnaround time of 3.4 days were the major AMS barriers identified. Conclusions: Low to moderate susceptibilities coupled with high rates of phenotypic resistance warrant tailoring NSTGs to fit local contexts within CCTH even after considering the biases in these results. The cumulative antibiogram proved a key AMS programme component after its communication to clinicians and subsequent monitoring of its influence on prescribing indicators. This should be adopted to enhance such programmes across the country.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Type: open-access
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 October 2022
Date of Acceptance: 18 September 2022
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 12:13

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