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Caffeine, moods, verbal reasoning, semantic processing and levels of processing: An investigation of state-dependent memory.

Nguyen-Van-Tam, Dominic P. and Smith, Andrew P. ORCID: 2022. Caffeine, moods, verbal reasoning, semantic processing and levels of processing: An investigation of state-dependent memory. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research 11 (13) , pp. 2166-2190. 10.20959/wjpr202213-25780

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Background: The effects of caffeine on cognition have been widely studied, but there are still gaps in the literature, especially in the area of memory. The present study aimed to confirm the positive effects of caffeine on semantic processing and executive function. It also investigated whether caffeine consumption can lead to state-dependent learning. In addition, the study examined whether caffeine interacted with the level of the processing carried out at encoding and subsequently influenced delayed recall. Methods: Participants (N=98) completed two laboratory sessions on consecutive days. Separate groups either received caffeine or placebo on each day or had a different condition on each day. The caffeine dose was 4mg/kg and was carried out double-blind. Each day the participants rated their mood before and after the memory tests. On the first day, the memory tests investigated semantic processing, logical reasoning and immediate recall following different levels of processing. On the second day, delayed recall of the words shown in the levels of processing test was also examined. Results: Caffeine led to greater reported alertness, sociability and anxiety. The performance of the semantic processing and logical reasoning tasks was significantly better in the caffeine condition. Caffeine did not interact with the level of encoding and had no significant effect on immediate recall. The delayed recall was significantly worse in the caffeine condition. There was no evidence of state-dependent memory in this study. Conclusion: The results from this study confirm the effects of caffeine on mood, semantic processing, and executive function. There was no evidence that caffeine leads to state-dependent memory. Although the level of processing influenced immediate recall, caffeine did not modify this effect. The delayed recall was found to be impaired in the caffeine condition. These results extend our knowledge of caffeine and memory and show that semantic processing and logical reasoning tasks can be used as positive controls in future research on this topic.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
ISSN: 2277-7105
Funders: ESRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 6 October 2022
Date of Acceptance: 30 September 2022
Last Modified: 11 Nov 2022 09:08

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