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Black Start Capability from Large Industrial Consumers

Abeynayake, Gayan, Cipcigan, Liana ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5015-3334 and Ding, Xiaolin 2022. Black Start Capability from Large Industrial Consumers. Energies 15 (19) , 7262. 10.3390/en15197262

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Abstract

The way of control and operation of an electrical power system has been changing rapidly with the integration of renewable energy sources (RES). One of the emerging issues that require addressing is the capability of RES to participate in the restoration process upon a total or partial system failure. However, with the continuous shutdown of large-centralised generators, which traditionally provided the black start support together with the variability of RES, the restoration process becomes much more complex. Primarily, the RES should have enough capacity to energise the load at the time of the restoration. Nonetheless, due to significant advantages, there is an increasing trend to use RES to meet the local energy demand by large industrial customers. The flexibility of shifting loads together with the surplus of RE generation could support the system operator during the system energisation process after a blackout. This paper mainly focuses on identifying the capabilities and factors that should be accounted for to participate in the system restoration process by large industrial consumers. The case study conducted on a large-scale steel factory in the UK reveals the possibility of supporting the restoration process under the bottom-up approach

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 1996-1073
Funders: EPSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 14 October 2022
Date of Acceptance: 28 September 2022
Last Modified: 30 Nov 2022 08:57
URI: https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/153293

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