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Nitrous oxide improves cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermal stability during prolonged isoflurane anesthesia in juvenile guinea pigs

Sixtus, Ryan P. ORCID:, Gray, Clint, Berry, Mary J. and Dyson, Rebecca M. 2021. Nitrous oxide improves cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermal stability during prolonged isoflurane anesthesia in juvenile guinea pigs. Pharmacology Research and Perspectives 9 (1) , e00713. 10.1002/prp2.713

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Anesthesia is frequently used to facilitate physiological monitoring during interventional animal studies. However, its use may induce cardiovascular (central and peripheral), respiratory, and thermoregulatory depression, confounding results in anesthetized animals. Despite the wide utility of guinea pigs as a translational platform, anesthetic protocols remain unstandardized for extended physiological studies in this species. Therefore, optimizing an anesthetic protocol that balances stable anesthesia with intact cardiorespiratory and metabolic function is crucial. To achieve this, 12 age and sex-matched juvenile Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs underwent extended anesthesia (≤150 min) with either (a) isoflurane (ISO: 1.5%), or (b) isoflurane + N2O (ISO+ N2O: 0.8% +70%), in this randomized cross-over designed study. Cardiovascular (HR, SBP, peripheral microvascular blood flow), respiratory (respiratory rate, SpO2), and thermal (Tre and Tsk) measures were recorded continuously throughout anesthesia. Blood gas measures pre- and post- anesthesia were performed. Incorporation of 70% N2O allowed for significant reductions in isoflurane (to 0.8%) while maintaining an effective anesthetic depth for prolonged noninvasive physiological examination in guinea pigs. ISO+N2O maintained heart rate, peripheral blood flow, respiratory rate, and thermoregulatory function at levels closest to those of conscious animals, especially in females; however, it did not fully rescue anesthesia-induced hypotension. These results suggest that for studies requiring prolonged physiological examination (≤150 min) in guinea pigs, 0.8% isoflurane with a 70% N2O adjuvant provides adequate anesthesia, while minimizing associated cardiorespiratory depression. The preservation of cardiorespiratory status is most marked throughout the first hour of anesthesia.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: Wiley Open Access
ISSN: 2052-1707
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 29 November 2022
Date of Acceptance: 13 December 2020
Last Modified: 14 May 2023 02:37

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