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What innovations help with the recruitment and retention of ambulance staff: a rapid evidence summary

Edwards, Deborah ORCID:, Csontos, Judit Katalin ORCID:, Gillen, Elizabeth G. ORCID:, Carrier, Judith A. ORCID:, Lewis, Ruth, Cooper, Alison ORCID: and Edwards, Adrian G. ORCID: 2022. What innovations help with the recruitment and retention of ambulance staff: a rapid evidence summary. [Online]. medRxiv. Available at:

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Abstract: Ambulance waiting times across the UK have increased in recent years. The numbers of ambulance staff leaving services across the UK is increasing every year. Strategies to help recruit and retain all ambulance staff, including paramedics are important. This rapid evidence summary aimed to investigate what innovations can help with their recruitment and retention. Eight primary studies were identified: Recruitment: Evidence from a UK survey suggests that factors negatively influencing paramedic recruitment include competitive job market, lack of locally trained professionals, and newly qualified professionals starting with higher debt. Evidence from the US suggests that factors supporting recruitment concern future paramedics wanting to enter a caring profession or an exciting job. Additionally, strategies to recruit emergency medical technicians need to include the motivational aspects of growth, advancement, recognition, and responsibility. Evidence indicates that factors hindering recruitment of emergency medical technicians and/ or paramedics include rural working, and ambulance services not seen as a primary career path. Retention: Evidence from a UK survey suggests that pay, reward, stress and workload are factors that hinder paramedic retention. Evidence recommends retention strategies for paramedics, such as reviewing banding, improving work conditions and career progression, changing the way ambulances are dispatched to calls, and providing retention premiums. Evidence from the US suggests that pay, benefits, opportunities for advancement, continuous professional development, burnout, stress, workload, nearing retirement and career change are factors that influence retention of emergency medical technicians and/ or paramedics. Evidence from Thailand suggests that remuneration and professionalism are factors supporting paramedic retention. More up-to-date information is needed on the recruitment and retention of ambulance staff in UK settings. Further research providing a more detailed investigation of factors influencing recruitment and retention may be useful. The development or implementation of future strategies to help the recruitment and retention of paramedics and emergency medical technicians should be accompanied by a planned impact evaluation.

Item Type: Website Content
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Healthcare Sciences
Prime Centre Wales (PRIME)
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Publisher: medRxiv
Funders: Health and Care Research Wales, Welsh Government
Related URLs:
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 2 January 2024
Date of Acceptance: 29 November 2022
Last Modified: 28 Feb 2024 07:39

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