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An exploration of the multiplicative effect of "Other people" and other environmental effects on violence in the night-time environment

Moore, Simon C. ORCID:, Woolley, Thomas E. ORCID: and White, James ORCID: 2022. An exploration of the multiplicative effect of "Other people" and other environmental effects on violence in the night-time environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19 (24) , 16963. 10.3390/ijerph192416963

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Background: The characteristics of night-time environments (NTEs) in which alcohol is consumed and that contribute to violence are poorly described. We explore competing explanations for violence in the NTE, with a particular focus on the number of patrons and its association with assault-related visits to a hospital emergency department. Other environmental features including the weather and notable events were also considered. The primary aim was to stimulate debate around the causal mechanisms responsible for violence. Methods: Assault-related ED visits occurring between 8 pm and 4 am were recorded at the University Hospital of Wales, the single Emergency Department (ED) serving Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom. Footfall was derived from the total number of unique MAC addresses recorded per hour collected from ten wireless fidelity monitoring tools located in the city centre. A narrative review of the literature concerning alcohol and violence informed exploratory analyses into the association between night-time footfall, sporting events, the weather, and other potential predictors of assault-related visits to the ED. We developed analytic methods from formal accounts of queueing. Results: International rugby matches at home, the weather (temperature), national holidays, the day of the week, and number of patrons in the NTE predicted assault-related injury (R2 = 0.70), with footfall yielding a positive non-linear exponential association consistent with predictions derived from mathematical models of queueing. Discussion: Assault-related visits to the ED have a non-linear association with the number of people socialising in the night-time environment and are further influenced by the weather and notable events. Opportunities for further research that might inform policy and interventions aimed at better managing NTEs are discussed.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Centre for Trials Research (CNTRR)
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 1660-4601
Funders: ESRC, MRC, Alcohol Research UK, HCRW
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 19 December 2022
Date of Acceptance: 14 December 2022
Last Modified: 04 May 2023 13:44

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