Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics of clozapine in an ancestrally diverse sample: a longitudinal analysis and genome-wide association study using UK clinical monitoring data

Pardinas, Antonio F. ORCID:, Kappel, Djenifer B., Roberts, Milly, Tipple, Francesca, Shitomi-Jones, Lisa M., King, Adrian, Jansen, John, Helthius, Marinka, Owen, Michael J. ORCID:, O'Donovan, Michael C. ORCID: and Walters, James T.R. ORCID: 2023. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics of clozapine in an ancestrally diverse sample: a longitudinal analysis and genome-wide association study using UK clinical monitoring data. The Lancet Psychiatry 10 (3) , pp. 209-219. 10.1016/S2215-0366(23)00002-0

[thumbnail of PIIS2215036623000020.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB) | Preview
License URL:
License Start date: 1 March 2023


Background The antipsychotic, clozapine, is the only licensed drug against the treatment-resistant symptoms that affect 20–30% of people with schizophrenia. Clozapine is markedly underprescribed, partly because of concerns about its narrow therapeutic range and adverse drug reaction profile. Both concerns are linked to drug metabolism, which varies across populations globally and is partly genetically determined. Our study aimed to use a cross-ancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) design to investigate variations in clozapine metabolism within and between genetically inferred ancestral backgrounds, to discover genomic associations to clozapine plasma concentrations, and to assess the effects of pharmacogenomic predictors across different ancestries. Methods In this GWAS, we analysed data from the UK Zaponex Treatment Access System clozapine monitoring service as part of the CLOZUK study. We included all available individuals with clozapine pharmacokinetic assays requested by their clinicians. We excluded people younger than 18 years, or whose records contained clerical errors, or with blood drawn 6–24 h after dose, a clozapine or norclozapine concentration less than 50 ng/mL, a clozapine concentration of more than 2000 ng/mL, a clozapine-to-norclozapine ratio outside of the 0·5–3·0 interval, or a clozapine dose of more than 900 mg/day. Using genomic information, we identified five biogeographical ancestries: European, sub-Saharan African, north African, southwest Asian, and east Asian. We did pharmacokinetic modelling, a GWAS, and a polygenic risk score association analysis using longitudinal regression analysis with three primary outcome variables: two metabolite plasma concentrations (clozapine and norclozapine) and the clozapine-to-norclozapine ratio. Findings 19 096 pharmacokinetic assays were available for 4760 individuals in the CLOZUK study. After data quality control, 4495 individuals (3268 [72·7%] male and 1227 [27·3%] female; mean age 42·19 years [range 18–85]) linked to 16 068 assays were included in this study. We found a faster average clozapine metabolism in people of sub-Saharan African ancestry than in those of European ancestry. By contrast, individuals with east Asian or southwest Asian ancestry were more likely to be slow clozapine metabolisers than those with European ancestry. Eight pharmacogenomic loci were identified in the GWAS, seven with significant effects in non-European groups. Polygenic scores generated from these loci were associated with clozapine outcome variables in the whole sample and within individual ancestries; the maximum variance explained was 7·26% for the metabolic ratio. Interpretation Longitudinal cross-ancestry GWAS can discover pharmacogenomic markers of clozapine metabolism that, individually or as polygenic scores, have consistent effects across ancestries. Our findings suggest that ancestral differences in clozapine metabolism could be considered for optimising clozapine prescription protocols for diverse populations.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Advanced Research Computing @ Cardiff (ARCCA)
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 2215-0366
Funders: MRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 10 January 2023
Date of Acceptance: 22 December 2022
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2024 10:01

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics