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Rapid assembly and rejuvenation of a large silicic magmatic system: Insights from mineral diffusive profiles in the Kidnappers and Rocky Hill deposits, New Zealand

Cooper, George F. ORCID:, Morgan, Daniel J. and Wilson, Colin J. N. 2017. Rapid assembly and rejuvenation of a large silicic magmatic system: Insights from mineral diffusive profiles in the Kidnappers and Rocky Hill deposits, New Zealand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 473 , pp. 1-13. 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.036

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The timescales over which magmas in large silicic systems are reactivated, assembled and stored remains a fundamental question in volcanology. To address this question, we study timescales from Fe–Mg interdiffusion in orthopyroxenes and Ti diffusion in quartz from the caldera-forming 1200 km3 Kidnappers and 200 km3 Rocky Hill eruptions from the Mangakino volcanic centre (Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand). The two eruptions came from the same source area, have indistinguishable 40Ar/39Ar ages (∼1.0 Ma) and zircon U–Pb age spectra, but their respective deposits are separated by a short period of erosion. Compositions of pumice, glass and mineral species in the collective eruption deposits define multiple melt dominant bodies but indicate that these shared a common magmatic mush zone. Diffusion timescales from both eruptions are used to build on chemical and textural crystal signatures and interpret both the crystal growth histories and the timing of magma accumulation. Fe–Mg interdiffusion profiles in orthopyroxenes imply that the three melt-dominant bodies, established through extraction of melt and crystals from the common source, were generated within 600 years and with peak accumulation rates within 100 years of each eruption. In addition, a less-evolved melt interacted with the Kidnappers magma, beginning ∼30 years prior to and peaking within 3 years of the eruption. This interaction did not directly trigger the eruption, but may have primed the magmatic system. Orthopyroxene crystals with the same zoning patterns from the Kidnappers and Rocky Hill pumices yield consistently different diffusion timescales, suggesting a time break between the eruptions of ∼20 years (from core–rim zones) to ∼10 years (outer rim zones). Diffusion of Ti in quartz reveals similarly short timescales and magmatic residence times of <30 years, suggesting quartz is only recording the last period of crystallization within the final eruptible melt. Accumulation of the eruptible magma for these two, closely successive eruptions was accomplished over centuries to decades, in contrast to the gestation time of the magmatic system of ∼200 kyr, as indicated by zircon age patterns. The magmatic system was able to recover after the Kidnappers eruption in only ∼10–20 years to accumulate enough eruptible melt and crystals for a second ∼200km³ eruption. Our data support concepts of large silicic systems being stored as long-lived crystal mushes, with eruptible melts generated over extraordinarily short timescales prior to eruption.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier {BV}
ISSN: 1385-013X
Date of Acceptance: 25 May 2017
Last Modified: 13 Feb 2023 14:45

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