Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Correction for particle Loss in a regulatory aviation nvPM emissions system using measured particle size

Durand, Eliot ORCID:, Durdina, Lukas, Smallwood, Greg, Johnson, Mark, Spirig, Curdin, Edebeli, Jacinta, Roth, Manuel, Brem, Benjamin, Sevcenco, Yura ORCID: and Crayford, Andrew ORCID: 2023. Correction for particle Loss in a regulatory aviation nvPM emissions system using measured particle size. Journal of Aerosol Science 169 , 106140. 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2023.106140

[thumbnail of 1-s2.0-S0021850223000058-main.pdf] PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (6MB)


To reduce the adverse impact of civil aviation on local air quality and human health, a new international standard for non-volatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) number and mass emissions was recently adopted. A system loss correction method, which accounts for the significant size-dependent particle loss, is also detailed to predict nvPM emissions representative of those at engine exit for emissions inventory purposes. As Particle-Size-Distribution (PSD) measurement is currently not prescribed, the existing loss correction method uses the nvPM number and mass measurements along with several assumptions to predict a PSD, resulting in significant uncertainty. Three new system loss correction methodologies using measured PSD were developed and compared with the existing regulatory method using certification-like nvPM data reported by the Swiss and European nvPM reference systems for thirty-two civil turbofan engines representative of the current fleet. Additionally, the PSD statistics of three sizing instruments typically used in these systems (SMPS, DMS500 and EEPS) were compared on a generic aero-engine combustor rig. General agreement between the three new PSD loss correction methods was observed, with both nvPM number- and mass-based system loss correction factors (kSL_num and kSL_mass) within ±10% reported across the engines tested. By comparison, the existing regulatory method was seen to underpredict kSL_num by up to 67% and overpredict kSL_mass by up to 49% when compared with the measured-PSD-based methods, typically driven by low nvPM mass concentrations and small particle size. In terms of the particle sizing instrument inter-comparison, an agreement of ±2 nm for the GMD and ±0.08 for the GSD was observed across a range of particle sizes on the combustor rig. However, it was seen that these differences can result in a 19% bias for kSL_num and 8% for kSL_mass for the measured-PSD-based methods, highlighting the need for further work towards the standardisation of PSD measurement for regulatory purposes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0021-8502
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 24 January 2023
Date of Acceptance: 19 January 2023
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 17:58

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics