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Agents contributing to secondary immunodeficiency development in patients with multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A systematic literature review

Jolles, Stephen, Giralt, Sergio, Kerre, Tessa, Lazarus, Hillard M., Mustafa, S. Shahzad, Ria, Roberto and Vinh, Donald C. 2023. Agents contributing to secondary immunodeficiency development in patients with multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A systematic literature review. Frontiers in Oncology 13 10.3389/fonc.2023.1098326

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Introduction: Patients with hematological malignancies (HMs), like chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), multiple myeloma (MM), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), have a high risk of secondary immunodeficiency (SID), SID-related infections, and mortality. Here, we report the results of a systematic literature review on the potential association of various cancer regimens with infection rates, neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, or hypogammaglobulinemia, indicative of SID. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 03/2022 using PubMed to search for clinical trials that mentioned in the title and/or abstract selected cancer (CLL, MM, or NHL) treatments covering 12 classes of drugs, including B-lineage monoclonal antibodies, CAR T therapies, proteasome inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, immunomodulators, antimetabolites, anti-tumor antibiotics, alkylating agents, Bcl-2 antagonists, histone deacetylase inhibitors, vinca alkaloids, and selective inhibitors of nuclear export. To be included, a publication had to report at least one of the following: percentages of patients with any grade and/or grade ≥3 infections, any grade and/or grade ≥3 neutropenia, or hypogammaglobulinemia. From the relevant publications, the percentages of patients with lymphocytopenia and specific types of infection (fungal, viral, bacterial, respiratory [upper or lower respiratory tract], bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, skin, gastrointestinal, and sepsis) were collected. Results: Of 89 relevant studies, 17, 38, and 34 included patients with CLL, MM, and NHL, respectively. In CLL, MM, and NHL, any grade infections were seen in 51.3%, 35.9% and 31.1% of patients, and any grade neutropenia in 36.3%, 36.4%, and 35.4% of patients, respectively. The highest proportion of patients with grade ≥3 infections across classes of drugs were: 41.0% in patients with MM treated with a B-lineage monoclonal antibody combination; and 29.9% and 38.0% of patients with CLL and NHL treated with a kinase inhibitor combination, respectively. In the limited studies, the mean percentage of patients with lymphocytopenia was 1.9%, 11.9%, and 38.6% in CLL, MM, and NHL, respectively. Two studies reported the proportion of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia: 0–15.3% in CLL and 5.9% in NHL (no studies reported hypogammaglobulinemia in MM). Conclusion: This review highlights cancer treatments contributing to infections and neutropenia, potentially related to SID, and shows underreporting of hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphocytopenia before and during HM therapies.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Frontiers Media
ISSN: 2234-943X
Funders: CSLB
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 27 February 2023
Date of Acceptance: 4 January 2023
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 08:33

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