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Comparing direct measurements and three-dimensional (3D) scans for evaluating facial soft tissue

Gašparović, Boris, Morelato, Luka, Lenac, Kristijan, Mauša, Goran, Zhurov, Alexei ORCID: and Katić, Višnja 2023. Comparing direct measurements and three-dimensional (3D) scans for evaluating facial soft tissue. Sensors 23 (5) , 2412. 10.3390/s23052412

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The inspection of patients’ soft tissues and the effects of various dental procedures on their facial physiognomy are quite challenging. To minimise discomfort and simplify the process of manual measuring, we performed facial scanning and computer measurement of experimentally determined demarcation lines. Images were acquired using a low-cost 3D scanner. Two consecutive scans were obtained from 39 participants, to test the scanner repeatability. An additional ten persons were scanned before and after forward movement of the mandible (predicted treatment outcome). Sensor technology that combines red, green, and blue (RGB) data with depth information (RGBD) integration was used for merging frames into a 3D object. For proper comparison, the resulting images were registered together, which was performed with ICP (Iterative Closest Point)-based techniques. Measurements on 3D images were performed using the exact distance algorithm. One operator measured the same demarcation lines directly on participants; repeatability was tested (intra-class correlations). The results showed that the 3D face scans were reproducible with high accuracy (mean difference between repeated scans <1%); the actual measurements were repeatable to some extent (excellent only for the tragus-pogonion demarcation line); computational measurements were accurate, repeatable, and comparable to the actual measurements. Three dimensional (3D) facial scans can be used as a faster, more comfortable for patients, and more accurate technique to detect and quantify changes in facial soft tissue resulting from various dental procedures.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Type: open-access
Publisher: MDPI
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 7 March 2023
Date of Acceptance: 15 February 2023
Last Modified: 03 May 2023 09:07

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