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Feasibility study and impact mitigation with the integration of Electric Vehicles into Rwanda's power grid

Mudaheranwa, Emmanuel, Sonder, Hasan, Cipcigan, Liana ORCID: and Ugalde Loo, Carlos ORCID: 2023. Feasibility study and impact mitigation with the integration of Electric Vehicles into Rwanda's power grid. Electric Power Systems Research 220 , 109341. 10.1016/j.epsr.2023.109341

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In recent years, fossil fuel transportation has grown significantly and Electric Vehicles (EVs) are essential to lowering transport-related pollution. This research uses the IPSA+ Power simulation tool to examine load-flow and establish Rwanda's power system's EV charging load capability. Rwandan grids with EV chargers are tested under various network reinforcement situations. According to simulation results, the maximum penetration rate that can be used to keep the Rwandan grid's operating characteristics within acceptable limits for registered private vehicles, buses, and taxis, is 1.5%, 10%, and 10%, respectively, if they are charged on 10 kW chargers. However, the permitted rates decrease to 1%, 8%, and 8% for these cars equipped with 20 kW chargers. This study suggested placing distributed generation units near important substations to reduce power losses and maintain busbar voltages within regulatory limits. Two of 18 transformers loaded above 80% with 10 kW charges. However, using 20 kW chargers, transformers at seven substations had loadings above 80%, with 83.7%, 83.9%, 82.3%, 88.2%, 87.6%, 84.7%, and 91.8%, respectively. A framework for regulating transformer loading was suggested, and it was shown that during peak demand, critical substations can contribute up to 6 MW to ensure that transformers operate at their highest possible level of efficiency. This study assumes the battery to charge to 70% and 30%. These regulations ensure drivers' comfort with their cars' SoC levels. Scenario 1 guarantees that electric vehicles will have the expected battery SoC levels, while Scenario 2 requires a little lower proportion to give the highest LRC. This is due to the fact that Scenario 2 is incapable of compensating for the change in power consumption while simultaneously executing real-time transformer and line loading regulation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1873-2046
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 23 May 2023
Date of Acceptance: 14 March 2023
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2024 02:17

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