Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Household Composition and Inequalities in COVID-19 Vaccination in Wales, UK.

Lench, Alex, Perry, Malorie, Johnson, Rhodri D., Fry, Richard, Richardson, Gill, Lyons, Ronan A., Akbari, Ashley, Edwards, Adrian ORCID:, Collins, Brendan, Joseph-Williams, Natalie ORCID:, Cooper, Alison ORCID: and Cottrell, Simon 2023. Household Composition and Inequalities in COVID-19 Vaccination in Wales, UK. Vaccines 11 (3) , pp. 1-9. 10.3390/vaccines11030604

[thumbnail of Lench et al. 2023.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (844kB) | Preview


The uptake of COVID-19 vaccination in Wales is high at a population level but many inequalities exist. Household composition may be an important factor in COVID-19 vaccination uptake due to the practical, social, and psychological implications associated with different living arrangements. In this study, the role of household composition in the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination in Wales was examined with the aim of identifying areas for intervention to address inequalities. Records within the Wales Immunisation System (WIS) COVID-19 vaccination register were linked to the Welsh Demographic Service Dataset (WDSD; a population register for Wales) held within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Eight household types were defined based on household size, the presence or absence of children, and the presence of single or multiple generations. Uptake of the second dose of any COVID-19 vaccine was analysed using logistic regression. Gender, age group, health board, rural/urban residential classification, ethnic group, and deprivation quintile were included as covariates for multivariable regression. Compared to two-adult households, all other household types were associated with lower uptake. The most significantly reduced uptake was observed for large, multigenerational, adult group households (aOR 0.45, 95%CI 0.43–0.46). Comparing multivariable regression with and without incorporation of household composition as a variable produced significant differences in odds of vaccination for health board, age group, and ethnic group categories. These results indicate that household composition is an important factor for the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and consideration of differences in household composition is necessary to mitigate vaccination inequalities.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2076-393X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 April 2023
Date of Acceptance: 5 March 2023
Last Modified: 28 May 2023 16:32

Citation Data

Cited 1 time in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics