Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Sub-states in transition: changing patterns of EU paradiplomacy in Scotland and Wales, 1992?2021

Minto, Rachel ORCID:, Rowe, Carolyn and Royles, Elin 2023. Sub-states in transition: changing patterns of EU paradiplomacy in Scotland and Wales, 1992?2021. Territory, Politics, Governance 10.1080/21622671.2023.2203176
Item availability restricted.

[thumbnail of Minto, Rowe and Royles 2023_Territory, Politics, Governance_Accepted version_12 April 2023.pdf] PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Restricted to Repository staff only until 15 November 2024 due to copyright restrictions.

Download (432kB)


This article sheds new light on the dynamics of Scottish and Welsh relations with the European Union (EU). We analyse the development of Scotland and Wales’s ‘paradiplomacy’ over a 30-year period (1992–2021), offering the first comprehensive analysis of the EU-focused activities of sub-states transitioning out of the EU. We identify the significance of the interplay between a territory’s formal constitutional position and differences in party politics across levels of government in shaping paradiplomacy. Increasing tensions between the UK and devolved governments regarding the UK’s EU withdrawal have reinforced conflict dynamics, including in the context of growing protodiplomacy from the Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP) government.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Department of Politics and International Relations (POLIR)
Wales Governance Centre (WGCES)
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Group
ISSN: 2162-2671
Funders: Coppieters Foundation
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 May 2023
Date of Acceptance: 12 April 2023
Last Modified: 18 May 2023 19:26

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics