Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Childhood outcomes in children with and without cardiac echogenic foci: An electronic birth cohort study in Wales, UK

Hurt, Lisa ORCID:, Uzxun, Orhan, Morris, Susan, Bethel, Jacqueline, Evans, Annette ORCID:, Seaborne, Michael, Daniel, Rhian ORCID:, Brophy, Sinead and Paranjothy, Shantini ORCID: 2023. Childhood outcomes in children with and without cardiac echogenic foci: An electronic birth cohort study in Wales, UK. Children 10 (7) , 1233. 10.3390/children10071233

[thumbnail of children-10-01233.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (582kB) | Preview
License URL:
License Start date: 17 July 2023


There is uncertainty about outcomes associated with cardiac echogenic foci (CEF) seen at the midtrimester ultrasound scan because of limited population-based follow-up data. This can lead to unnecessary invasive testing and significant parental anxiety. We analysed data from a cohort study, The Welsh Study of Mothers and Babies, to examine whether children with CEF had more adverse outcomes during childhood compared with children without CEF. Children born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011 were followed until 31 January 2018, migration out of Wales, or death. The primary outcome was cardiac hospital admissions, defined a priori by an expert steering group. Secondary outcomes included congenital cardiac anomalies, and hospital admissions for other causes. There was no evidence of an association between isolated CEF and cardiac hospital admissions (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33–2.25, p value 0.768), or with congenital cardiac anomalies. There was a small increased risk of a respiratory admission with isolated CEF (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.54, p value 0.020). Further research is needed on features of CEF, such as location or number, to fully understand the clinical significance of these findings.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2227-9067
Funders: British Heart Foundation
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 10 July 2023
Date of Acceptance: 9 July 2023
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2023 16:52

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics