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Combustion characteristics of a novel ammonia combustor equipped with stratified injection for low emissions

Mashruk, Syed, Alnasif, Ali, Yu, Chunkan, Thatcher, James, Rudman, James, Peronski, Lukasz, Meng-Choung, Chiong and Valera-Medina, Agustin ORCID: 2023. Combustion characteristics of a novel ammonia combustor equipped with stratified injection for low emissions. Journal of Ammonia Energy 1 (1) , pp. 21-32. 10.18573/jae.10

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Ammonia – a carbon-free fuel- is being considered by various research groups and organizations as a potential alternative fuel to tackle some global warming issues of the 21st century. However, ammonia faces some challenges as a fuel, particularly, the production of unwanted NOx and unburned ammonia traces at the back end of combustion systems accompanied by unstable flame regimes. Therefore, new concepts are currently being developed to address these challenges whilst also providing stable, high-power operation. This work presents a newly designed stratified combustion system for gas turbines capable of operating with both premixed and stratified modes. The system has been initially evaluated using these two modes employing solely hydrogen and ammonia. Increase of hydrogen stratification resulted in the reduction of NO and NO2, while N2O slightly increased due to the reduction of fuel in the premixed system. Further tests were conducted to evaluate the potential of the systems to replace fossil fuels. Previous work done using methane as the fuel-to-be-replaced has shown interesting trends in terms of emissions and stability. Thus, to progress on the subject, the work conducted here attempted propane/ammonia/hydrogen using this innovative strategy. Results denoted how stratification has a strong impact on NOx production at the flame front, whilst the mechanism of flame stabilization of the new burner enables large operability regions under a great variety of fuel combinations. Strategic injection setups were identified, whilst the best propane/ammonia/hydrogen blends for stability and emissions reduction are also detailed for further implementation in larger systems.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Cardiff University Press
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 July 2023
Date of Acceptance: 11 May 2023
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2023 11:16

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