Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Quantification of flexibility from the thermal mass of residential buildings in England and Wales

Canet, Alexandre and Qadrdan, Meysam ORCID: 2023. Quantification of flexibility from the thermal mass of residential buildings in England and Wales. Applied Energy 349 , 121616. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121616

[thumbnail of 1-s2.0-S0306261923009807-main.pdf]
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (953kB) | Preview
License URL:
License Start date: 26 July 2023


The increased integration of variable renewable generation into the power systems, along with the phase-out of fossil-based power stations, necessitate procuring more flexibility from the demand sectors. The electrification of the residential heat sector is an option to decarbonise the heat sector in the United Kingdom. The inherent flexibility that is available in the residential heat sector, in the form of the thermal inertia of buildings, is expected to play an important role in supporting the critical task of short-term balancing of electricity supply and demand. This paper proposes a method for characterising the locally aggregated flexibility envelope from the electrified residential heat sector, considering the most influential factors including outdoor and indoor temperature, thermal mass and heat loss of dwellings. Applying the method to England and Wales as a case study, demonstrated a significant potential for a temporary reduction of electricity demand for heating even during cold days. For a scenario envisaged a fully electrified residential heat sector in England and Wales, total electricity demand reductions of approximately 25 GW and 85 GW were shown to be achievable for the outdoor temperature of 10 °C and -5 °C, respectively. Improving the energy performance of the housing stock in England and Wales was shown to reduce the magnitude of available flexibility to approximately 18 GW and 60 GW for the outdoor temperature of 10 °C and -5 °C, respectively. This is due to the use of smaller size heat pumps in the more efficient housing stock. However, the impact of the buildings' retrofit on their thermal mass and consequently on the duration of the flexibility provision is uncertain.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0306-2619
Funders: EPSRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 28 July 2023
Date of Acceptance: 15 July 2023
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2023 16:55

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics