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Epithelial responses and Candida albicans pathogenicity are enhanced in the presence of oral streptococci.

Martorano-Fernandes, L., Brito, A.C.M., Araújo, E.C.F., Almeida, L.F.D., Wei, X.Q. ORCID:, Williams, D.W. ORCID: and Cavalcanti, Y.W. 2023. Epithelial responses and Candida albicans pathogenicity are enhanced in the presence of oral streptococci. Brazilian Dental Journal 34 (3) , pp. 73-81. 10.1590/0103-6440202305420

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Experimental models that consider host-pathogen interactions are relevant for improving knowledge about oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to assess the epithelial immune responses, Candida penetration of cell monolayers, and virulence during mixed species culture infections. Single species cultures of Candida albicans and mixed cultures (C. albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sanguinis) were used to infect monolayers of HaCaT and FaDu ATCC HTB-43 cells for 12 h. After infection, IL-18 and IL-34 gene expression was measured to assess epithelial cell immune responses, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured as an indicator of cell damage. Microscopy determined C. albicans morphology and penetration of fungal cells through the keratinocyte monolayer. Monolayers devoid of infection served as controls. Data were analyzed by an ANOVA one-way test followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test (α = 0.05). The results found that IL-18 and IL-34 gene expression and LDH activity were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated for both cell lines exposed to mixed species cultures compared with C. albicans alone. Candida albicans yeast and hyphae were evident in C. albicans only infections. In contrast, monolayers infected by C. albicans, S. mutans, and S. sanguinis exhibited higher microbial invasion with several hyphal aggregates detected. The presence of streptococci in C. albicans infection enhances the virulence and pathogenicity of the fungus with associated increased immune responses and tissue damage. Extrapolation of these findings to oral infection would indicate the added potential benefit of managing bacterial components of biofilms during treatment.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto
ISSN: 0103-6440
Funders: Public Call nº 03/2020 Produtividade em Pesquisa PROPESQ/PRPG/UFPB proposal code PVG13203-2020
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 August 2023
Date of Acceptance: 11 May 2003
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2023 03:37

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