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Inflammatory responses induced by the monophasic variant of salmonella typhimurium in pigs play a role in the high shedder phenotype and fecal microbiota composition

Kempf, Florent, Cordoni, Guido, Chaussé, Anne-Marie, Drumo, Rosanna, Brown, Helen, Horton, Daniel L., Paboeuf, Frédéric, Denis, Martine, Velge, Philippe, La Ragione, Roberto, Kerouanton, Annaëlle and Barrett, Kim E. 2023. Inflammatory responses induced by the monophasic variant of salmonella typhimurium in pigs play a role in the high shedder phenotype and fecal microbiota composition. mSystems 8 (1) , e00852-22. 10.1128/msystems.00852-22

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Pigs infected with Salmonella may excrete large amounts of Salmonella, increasing the risk of spread of this pathogen in the food chain. Identifying Salmonella high shedder pigs is therefore required to mitigate this risk. We analyzed immune-associated markers and composition of the gut microbiota in specific-pathogen-free pigs presenting different shedding levels after an oral infection with Salmonella. Immune response was studied through total blood cell counts, production of anti-Salmonella antibodies and cytokines, and gene expression quantification. Total Salmonella shedding for each pig was estimated and hierarchical clustering was used to cluster pigs into high, intermediate, and low shedders. Gut microbiota compositions were assessed using 16S rRNA microbial community profiling. Comparisons were made between control and inoculated pigs, then between high and low shedders pigs. Prior to infection, high shedders had similar immunological profiles compared to low shedders. As soon as 1 day postinoculation (dpi), significant differences on the cytokine production level and on the expression level of several host genes related to a proinflammatory response were observed between high and low shedders. Infection with Salmonella induced an early and profound remodeling of the immune response in all pigs, but the intensity of the response was stronger in high shedders. In contrast, low shedders seroconverted earlier than high shedders. Just after induction of the proinflammatory response (at 2 dpi), some taxa of the fecal microbiota were specific to the shedding phenotypes. This was related to the enrichment of several functional pathways related to anaerobic respiration in high shedders. In conclusion, our data show that the immune response to Salmonella modifies the fecal microbiota and subsequently could be responsible for shedding phenotypes. Influencing the gut microbiota and reducing intestinal inflammation could be a strategy for preventing Salmonella high shedding in livestock. IMPORTANCE Salmonellosis remains the most frequent human foodborne zoonosis after campylobacteriosis and pork meat is considered one of the major sources of human foodborne infections. At the farm, host heterogeneity in pig infection is problematic. High Salmonella shedders contribute more significantly to the spread of this foodborne pathogen in the food chain. The identification of predictive biomarkers for high shedders could help to control Salmonella in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate why some pigs become super shedders and others low shedders. We thus investigated the differences in the fecal microbial composition and the immune response in orally infected pigs presenting different Salmonella shedding patterns. Our data show that the proinflammatory response induced by S. Typhimurium at 1 dpi could be responsible for the modification of the fecal microbiota composition and functions observed mainly at 2 and 3 dpi and to the low and super shedder phenotypes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
ISSN: 2379-5077
Funders: Horizon 2020
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 8 September 2023
Date of Acceptance: 28 October 2022
Last Modified: 11 Sep 2023 17:42

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