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The Hole-Board apparatus in the study of anxiety

Casarrubea, Maurizio, Di Giovanni, Giuseppe, Aiello, Stefania and Crescimanno, Giuseppe 2023. The Hole-Board apparatus in the study of anxiety. Physiology & Behavior 271 , 114346. 10.1016/j.physbeh.2023.114346

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Anxiety disorders pose a significant challenge in contemporary society, and their impact in terms of social and economic burden is overwhelming. Behavioral research conducted on animal subjects is crucial for comprehending these disorders and, from a translational standpoint, for introducing innovative therapeutic approaches. In this context, the Hole-Board apparatus has emerged as a widely utilized test for studying anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. Although a substantial body of literature underscores the utility and reliability of the Hole-Board in anxiety research, recent decades have witnessed a range of studies that have led to uncertainties and misinterpretations regarding the validity of this behavioral assay. The objective of this review is twofold: firstly, to underscore the utility and reliability of the Hole-Board assay, and concurrently, to examine the underlying factors contributing to potential misconceptions surrounding its utilization in the study of anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. We will present results from both conventional quantitative analyses and multivariate approaches, while referencing a comprehensive collection of studies conducted using the Hole-Board.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Start Date: 2023-09-08
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0031-9384
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 12 September 2023
Date of Acceptance: 8 September 2023
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2023 07:30

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