Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: treatment response and resistance in psychosis (TRRIP) working group consensus guidelines on diagnosis and terminology

Howes, Oliver D., McCutcheon, Rob, Agid, Ofer, de Bartolomeis, Andrea, van Beveren, Nico J.M., Birnbaum, Michael L., Bloomfield, Michael A.P., Bressan, Rodrigo A., Buchanan, Robert W., Carpenter, William T., Castle, David J., Citrome, Leslie, Daskalakis, Zafiris J., Davidson, Michael, Drake, Richard J., Dursun, Serdar, Edrub, Bjorn H., Elkis, Helio, Falkai, Peter, Fleischacker, W. Wolfgang, Gadelha, Ary, Gaughran, Fiona, Glenthoj, Birte Y., Graff-Guerrero, Ariel, Hallak, Jaime E.C., Honer, William G., Kennedy, James, Kinon, Bruce J., Lawrie, Stephen M., Lee, Jimmy, Leweke, F. Markus, MacCabe, James H., McNabb, Carolyn B., Meltzer, Herbert, Jurgen-Muller, Hans, Nakajima, Shinchiro, Pantelis, Christos, Reis Marques, Tiago, Remington, Gary, Rossell, Susan L., Russell, Bruce R., Siu, Cynthia O., Suzuki, Takefumi, Sommer, Iris E., Taylor, David, Thomas, Neil, Ucok, Alp, Umbricht, Daniel, Walters, James T.R. ORCID:, Kane, John and Correll, Christoph U. 2017. Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: treatment response and resistance in psychosis (TRRIP) working group consensus guidelines on diagnosis and terminology. The American Journal of Psychiatry 174 (3) , pp. 216-229. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16050503

Full text not available from this repository.


Objective: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. Method: A systematic review of randomized antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3) meetings to achieve consensus. Results: Of 2,808 studies identified, 42 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 studies (50%) did not provide operationalized criteria. In the remaining studies, criteria varied considerably, particularly regarding symptom severity, prior treatment duration, and antipsychotic dosage thresholds; only two studies (5%) utilized the same criteria. The consensus group identified minimum and optimal criteria, employing the following principles: 1) current symptoms of a minimum duration and severity determined by a standardized rating scale; 2) moderate or worse functional impairment; 3) prior treatment consisting of at least two different antipsychotic trials, each for a minimum duration and dosage; 4) systematic monitoring of adherence and meeting of minimum adherence criteria; 5) ideally at least one prospective treatment trial; and 6) criteria that clearly separate responsive from treatment-resistant patients. Conclusions: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment, and treatment response, providing a benchmark for research and clinical translation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Publisher: Psychiatry Online
ISSN: 1535-7228
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2023 11:00

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item