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MicroRNA‐155 (miR-155) as an accurate biomarker of periodontal status and coronary heart disease severity: a case–control study

Daily, Zina A., Al‑Ghurabei, Batool Hassan, Al‑Qarakhli, Ahmed Makki A. and Moseley, Ryan ORCID: 2023. MicroRNA‐155 (miR-155) as an accurate biomarker of periodontal status and coronary heart disease severity: a case–control study. BMC Oral Health 23 , 868. 10.1186/s12903-023-03584-w

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Background Increasing evidence supports associations between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease (CHD). This case–control study evaluated whether inflammatory regulator, microRNA-155 (miR-155), could be utilised as a biomarker of periodontitis and/or CHD. Methods Of 120 participants, 30 patients had clinically healthy periodontium (controls, C), 30 patients had generalized periodontitis (P), 30 patients had CHD and clinically healthy periodontium (AS-C); and 30 patients had CHD with generalized periodontitis (AS-P). Patient demographic and periodontal characteristics (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss), were collected. Patient whole blood and saliva levels of miR-155 and pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β), were quantified by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). One-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test was used to determine differences among the four groups. Chi Square test was used for participant gender comparisons. Pearson correlation tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between the demographic and clinical variables analysed, versus IL-1β and miR-155 levels. miR-155 and IL-1β accuracy in differentiating healthy versus other patient groups were analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, by calculating area under the curve (AUC) values and sensitivity and specificity cut-off points using Youden’s index. Statistical tests of sensitivity and specificity were conducted using the McNemar test. Results Whole blood miR-155 levels were elevated in periodontitis/non-periodontitis patients with CHD (AS-P, AS-C), and periodontitis patients alone (P) (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analyses confirmed miR-155 accuracy in discriminating P, AS-C and AS-P groups (AUC 0.6861–0.9944, p < 0.0001–0.05), coupled with high sensitivity (76.7–100.0%), specificity (53.3–96.7%) and cut-off points (> 0.955- > 2.915 a.u.; p < 0.0001). miR-155 levels further distinguished between CHD (AS-C, AS-P) and periodontitis (P) patients (AUC ≥ 0.8378, sensitivity ≥ 88.7%, specificity ≥ 73.3%, cut-off > 2.82 a.u; p < 0.0001), and between AS-C and AS-P patients (AUC 0.7578, sensitivity 80.0%, specificity 50.0%, cut-off > 7.065 a.u; p < 0.001). Subsequent analyses identified positive correlations between miR-155 and the various patient demographics, salivary interleukin-1β and periodontal parameters assessed. Conclusions This study advocates miR-155 as an accurate diagnostic/prognostic biomarker of periodontitis and/or CHD severity, thereby improving detection and treatment for both conditions.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: BioMed Central
ISSN: 1472-6831
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 November 2023
Date of Acceptance: 27 October 2023
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2023 10:15

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