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Improving the impact of pharmacy interventions in hospitals

Baptista, Rafael, Williams, Mary and Price, Jayne 2023. Improving the impact of pharmacy interventions in hospitals. BMJ Open Quality 12 (4) , e002276. 10.1136/bmjoq-2023-002276

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The clinical and pharmaceutical interventions of pharmacy professionals are considered impactful inputs towards optimised patient care and safety, by rationalising prescriptions, enhancing therapeutic choices and reducing and preventing medication errors and adverse effects. Pharmacy interventions (PIs), related to the identification, prevention and resolution of drug-related problems, should be recorded for optimal clinical governance and potential health outcomes. Between October 2020 and October 2021, the community hospitals at Powys Teaching Health Board recorded 158 PIs, corresponding to 0.4 interventions per staff per week. Only two members of the team were recording these PIs. Poor indicative PIs can result in lost opportunities for medication optimisation and prescribing rationalisation, increased costs and unidentified training potential. The aims of this project were (1) to record 180 interventions between 22 November 2021 and 8 April 2022 (20 weeks), corresponding to an average threefold increase, compared to the interventions recorded between October 2020 and October 2021 (52 weeks); (2) to have all hospital pharmacy staff recording at least one intervention during the same period. The number of interventions recorded and the number of pharmacy staff recording each intervention were two process measures. The project was completed through two Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles and applied theory on managing change in healthcare. The most successful intervention influencing positively the process measures was the implementation of a new Pharmacy Intervention Record Tool (xPIRT) toolkit that included an online recording tool (xPIRT) and an interactive panel with up-to-date results from all interventions recorded (xPIRT Dashboard). Motivating change was proven to be one of the best determinants of user satisfaction and engagement that contributed to meet the project’s targets. xPIRT Dashboard provided staff the capacity to act on possible personal motivators and the possibility to improving care with medicines on their wards. The implementation of xPIRT toolkit was able to increase the representativity and significance of PIs recorded by the hospital pharmacy team, and it is expected to be used for personal professional development, demonstrating team activity and impact, service planning, prescribing practice optimisation and to identify education/training needs. This toolkit can be easily applied and adapted to other health organisations, settings and services.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Start Date: 2023-11-08, Type: open-access
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 20 November 2023
Date of Acceptance: 26 October 2023
Last Modified: 20 Nov 2023 12:00

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