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Characterization and evasion of backscattered light in the squeezed-light enhanced gravitational wave interferometer GEO 600

Bergamin, Fabio, Lough, James, Schreiber, Emil, Grote, Hartmut ORCID:, Mehmet, Moritz, Vahlbruch, Henning, Affeldt, Christoph, Andric, Tomislav, Bisht, Aparna, Brinkmann, Marc, Kringel, Volker, Lück, Harald, Mukund, Nikhil, Nadji, Severin, Sorazu, Borja, Strain, Kenneth, Weinert, Michael and Danzmann, Karsten 2023. Characterization and evasion of backscattered light in the squeezed-light enhanced gravitational wave interferometer GEO 600. Optics Express 31 (23) , pp. 38443-38456. 10.1364/OE.497555

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Squeezed light is injected into the dark port of gravitational wave interferometers, in order to reduce the quantum noise. A fraction of the interferometer output light can reach the OPO due to sub-optimal isolation of the squeezing injection path. This backscattered light interacts with squeezed light generation process, introducing additional measurement noise. We present a theoretical description of the noise coupling mechanism and we prove the model with experimental results. We propose a control scheme to achieve a de-amplification of the backscattered light inside the OPO with a consequent reduction of the noise caused by it. The scheme was implemented at the GEO 600 detector and has proven to be crucial in maintaining a good level of quantum noise reduction of the interferometer for high parametric gain of the OPO. In particular, the mitigation of the backscattered light noise helped in reaching 6 dB of quantum noise reduction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 041102 (2021) [CrossRef] ]. We show that the impact of backscattered-light-induced noise on the squeezing performance is phenomenologically equivalent to increased phase noise of the squeezing angle control. The results discussed in this paper provide a way for a more accurate estimation of the residual phase noise of the squeezed light field. Finally, the knowledge of the backscattered light noise coupling mechanism is a useful tool to inform the design of the squeezing injection path in terms of path stability and optical isolation.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: Optica Publishing Group
ISSN: 1094-4087
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 December 2023
Date of Acceptance: 9 October 2023
Last Modified: 05 Dec 2023 11:00

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