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The multilevel society of proboscis monkeys with a possible patrilineal basis

Matsuda, Ikki, Murai, Tadahiro, Grueter, Cyril C., Tuuga, Augustine, Goossens, Benoit ORCID:, Bernard, Henry, Yahya, Nurhartini Kamalia, Orozco ter Wengel, Pablo ORCID: and Salgado Lynn, Milena 2024. The multilevel society of proboscis monkeys with a possible patrilineal basis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 78 , 5. 10.1007/s00265-023-03419-2

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Multilevel societies (MLS), which are characterized by two or more levels of social organization, are among the most complex primate social systems. MLS have only been recorded in a limited number of primates, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) form MLS in Sabah, Malaysia, and to genetically characterize their dispersal patterns. Association data were obtained through direct observation (35 months) and kinship data through genetic analysis, based on feces collected from ~ 200 individuals. The results strongly suggest that proboscis monkeys exhibit a form of MLS, with several core reproductive units and a bachelor group woven together into a higher-level band. Genetic analysis revealed that the females migrated randomly over short and long distances; however, the males tended to migrate relatively shorter distances than females. Furthermore, male-male dyads showed a slightly higher average relatedness than female-female dyads. Combined with the results of direct observations, we conclude that proboscis monkeys form MLS with at least two layers and a patrilineal basis. Since patrilineal MLS have been identified as an important step in the evolution of human societies, their convergent appearance in proboscis monkeys may help us understand the drivers of human social evolution.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: Springer
ISSN: 0340-5443
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 December 2023
Date of Acceptance: 14 December 2023
Last Modified: 03 Jan 2024 10:20

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