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Laser-patterned boron-doped diamond electrodes with precise control of sp2/sp3 carbon lateral distribution

Hrabovsky, J., Zelensky, M., Sladek, J., Zukerstein, M., Fischer, J., Schwarzova-Peckova, K., Taylor, A., Veis, M., Mandal, S. ORCID:, Williams, O.A. ORCID: and Bulgakova, N.M. 2023. Laser-patterned boron-doped diamond electrodes with precise control of sp2/sp3 carbon lateral distribution. Applied Surface Science 639 , 158268. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2023.158268

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A thorough study on sp3 to sp2 carbon conversion in undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin ( 500 nm) layers leading to the desired sp2/sp3 carbon ratio and lateral distribution, which utilizes boron atom incorporation and infrared (IR) material laser processing has been performed. Polycrystalline as-grown (AG) or chem-mechanically polished (CMP) undoped diamond/BDD layers were investigated with respect to boron content and laser wavelength (800, 1030 nm). Boron incorporation leads to an increase in IR optical absorption and reduction of required energy fluence ( th 1 J cm−2) needed for sp3 to sp2 carbon conversion. Raman spectroscopy was performed to identify carbon conversion stages and to tailor the ideal parameters for other IR laser sources and required sp2/sp3 carbon ratio. Electrochemical parameters ( p and Ap/ Cp ratio) were obtained from cyclic voltammetry measurements of outer-([Ru(NH3)6]3+/2+) and inner-([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) sphere redox markers. Values of p and Ap/ Cp are mainly influenced after conversion of 10% of sp3 to sp2 carbon. This trend is most pronounced for the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox marker, by decrease or increase of these parameters on AG or CMP BDD electrodes respectively. Electrochemical findings were supported by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy where ct keeps the same trend as p values and double layer capacitance profoundly increases between 10 and 25% of surface conversion.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0169-4332
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 January 2024
Date of Acceptance: 14 August 2023
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2024 11:30

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