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NIKA2 Cosmological Legacy Survey

Bing, L., Béthermin, M., Lagache, G., Adam, R., Ade, P. ORCID:, Ajeddig, H., André, P., Artis, E., Aussel, H., Beelen, A., Benoît, A., Berta, S., Billot, N., Bourrion, O., Calvo, M., Catalano, A., De Petris, M., Désert, F.-X., Doyle, S. ORCID:, Driessen, E. F. C., Elbaz, D., Gkogkou, A., Gomez, A., Goupy, J., Hanser, C., Kéruzoré, F., Kramer, C., Ladjelate, B., Liu, D., Leclercq, S., Lestrade, J.-F., Lustig, P., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maury, A., Mauskopf, P. ORCID:, Mayet, F., Monfardini, A., Muñoz-Echeverría, M., Perotto, L., Pisano, G., Ponthieu, N., Revéret, V., Rigby, A. J., Ritacco, A., Romero, C., Roussel, H., Ruppin, F., Schuster, K., Sievers, A., Tucker, C. ORCID: and Zylka, R. 2023. NIKA2 Cosmological Legacy Survey. Astronomy & Astrophysics 677 , A66. 10.1051/0004-6361/202346579

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Context. Finding and characterizing the heavily obscured galaxies with extreme star formation up to very high redshift is key for constraining the formation of the most massive galaxies in the early Universe. It has been shown that these obscured galaxies are major contributors to the accumulation of stellar mass to z ~ 4. At higher redshift, and despite recent progress, the contribution of dust-obscured galaxies remains poorly known. Aims. Deep surveys in the millimeter domain are necessary in order to probe the dust-obscured galaxies at high redshift. We conducted a large observing program at 1.2 and 2 mm with the NIKA2 camera installed on the IRAM 30m telescope. This NIKA2 Cosmological Legacy Survey (N2CLS) covers two emblematic fields: GOODS-N and COSMOS. We introduce the N2CLS survey and present new 1.2 and 2 mm number counts measurements based on the tiered N2CLS observations (from October 2017 to May 2021) covering 1169 arcmin2. Methods. After a careful data reduction and source extraction, we develop an end-to-end simulation that combines an input sky model with the instrument noise and data reduction pipeline artifacts. This simulation is used to compute the sample purity, flux boosting, pipeline transfer function, completeness, and effective area of the survey (taking into account the non-homogeneous sky coverage). For the input sky model, we used the 117 square degree SIDES simulations, which include galaxy clustering. Our formalism allows us to correct the source number counts to obtain galaxy number counts, the difference between the two being due to resolution effects caused by the blending of several galaxies inside the large beam of single-dish instruments. Results. The N2CLS-May2021 survey is already the deepest and largest ever made at 1.2 and 2 mm. It reaches an average 1σ- noise level of 0.17 and 0.048 mJy on GOODS-N over 159 arcmin2, and 0.46 and 0.14 mJy on COSMOS over 1010 arcmin2, at 1.2 and 2 mm, respectively. For a purity threshold of 80%, we detect 120 and 67 sources in GOODS-N and 195 and 76 sources in COSMOS at 1.2 and 2 mm, respectively. At 1.2 mm, the number counts measurement probes consistently 1.5 orders of magnitude in flux density, covering the full flux density range from previous single-dish surveys and going a factor of 2 deeper into the sub-mJy regime. Our measurement connects the bright single-dish to the deep interferometric number counts. At 2 mm, our measurement matches the depth of the deepest interferometric number counts and extends a factor of 2 above the brightest constraints. After correcting for resolution effects, our results reconcile the single-dish and interferometric number counts, which can be further accurately compared with model predictions. Conclusions. While the observation in GOODS-N have already reached the target depth, we expect the final N2CLS survey to be 1.5 times deeper for COSMOS. Thanks to its volume-complete flux selection, the final N2CLS sample will be an ideal reference for conducting a full characterization of dust-obscured galaxies at high redshift.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: EDP Sciences
ISSN: 0004-6361
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 January 2024
Date of Acceptance: 11 May 2023
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2024 10:31

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