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Post-cumulus control on copper isotopic fractionation during oceanic intra-crustal magmatic differentiation

Zhang, Wei-Qi, Liu, Chuan-Zhou, Lissenberg, C. Johan ORCID: and Li, Xiao-Ni 2024. Post-cumulus control on copper isotopic fractionation during oceanic intra-crustal magmatic differentiation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 369 , pp. 35-50. 10.1016/j.gca.2024.01.030
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Unlike their eruptive counterparts, plutonic rocks often experience post-cumulus evolution prior to their final solidification. These processes have the potential to exert significant control on the distributions of elements and their isotopic compositions of plutonic rocks. However, our understanding in these effects remains limited, particularly for metal stable isotopes. Here, we carried out high-precision δ65Cu measurements for a suite of primitive to evolved cumulates from the Kane area, 23oN of Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Most mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) exhibit uniformly bulk silicate Earth (BSE)-like δ65Cu of + 0.09 ± 0.08 ‰, indicating limited Cu isotopic fractionation in crustal magma reservoirs prior to melt extraction. However, our new Cu isotopic data on these cumulates show that large Cu isotopic variations (δ65Cu = -0.6 ‰ to + 0.9 ‰) occur in variably evolved cumulates (MgO/total FeO < 3.0), while the most primitive cumulates (MgO/total FeO > 3.0) exhibit BSE-like δ65Cu (+0.06 ± 0.06 ‰). Petrological and geochemical observations indicate limited hydrothermal effects on Kane cumulate Cu isotopes. Modeling results indicate that the variable δ65Cu in Kane cumulates are unlikely to result from magmatic processes during the cumulus stage. Instead, the large Cu isotopic variation in Kane cumulates requires post-cumulus melt evolution involving fractionation between sulfide and intercumulus melts at relatively low temperatures. Textures and mineral chemistry indicate pervasive post-cumulus modifications of Kane cumulates by porous melt flow. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that intercumulus melts persist at temperatures even to 200 °C lower than the initial liquidus temperatures. Our data indicate that lower temperatures in the post-cumulus melt evolution and lower sulfide Ni contents result in lower sulfide-silicate melt Cu isotope fractionation factor (αsulfide-melt), then causing greater Cu isotopic variations in cumulates. We suggest that post-cumulus melt evolution reconcile both the Cu depletion and large Cu isotope fractionation in oceanic cumulates that are unexpected by a simple process of crystal accumulation from MORBs. This study highlights the essential role of post-cumulus evolution in controlling metal budget and their stable isotope fractionation during intra-crustal differentiation, which might also be applied to island arc and continental settings.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0016-7037
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 9 February 2024
Date of Acceptance: 29 January 2024
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2024 10:10

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