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On the scarcity of dense cores ( n > 10 5 cm −3 ) in high-latitude Planck Galactic cold clumps

Xu, Fengwei, Wang, Ke, Liu, Tie, Eden, David, Liu, Xunchuan, Juvela, Mika, He, Jinhua, Johnstone, Doug, Goldsmith, Paul, Garay, Guido, Wu, Yuefang, Soam, Archana, Traficante, Alessio, Ristorcelli, Isabelle, Falgarone, Edith, Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien, Hirano, Naomi, Doi, Yasuo, Kwon, Woojin, White, Glenn J., Whitworth, Anthony ORCID:, Sanhueza, Patricio, Rawlings, Mark G., Alina, Dana, Ren, Zhiyuan, Lee, Chang Won, Tatematsu, Ken’ichi, Zhang, Chuan-Peng, Zhou, Jianjun, Lai, Shih-Ping, Ward-Thompson, Derek ORCID:, Liu, Sheng-Yuan, Gu, Qilao, Chakali, Eswaraiah, Zhu, Lei, Mardones, Diego and Tóth, L. Viktor 2024. On the scarcity of dense cores ( n > 10 5 cm −3 ) in high-latitude Planck Galactic cold clumps. Astrophysical Journal Letters 963 (1) , L9. 10.3847/2041-8213/ad21e6

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High-latitude (∣b∣ > 30°) molecular clouds have virial parameters that exceed 1, but whether these clouds can form stars has not been studied systematically. Using JCMT SCUBA-2 archival data, we surveyed 70 fields that target high-latitude Planck Galactic cold clumps (HLPCs) to find dense cores with density of 105–106 cm−3 and size of <0.1 pc. The sample benefits from both the representativeness of the parent sample and its coverage of the densest clumps at the high column density end (>1 × 1021 cm−2). At an average rms of 15 mJy beam−1, we detected Galactic dense cores in only one field, G6.04+36.77 (L183) while also identifying 12 extragalactic objects and two young stellar objects. Compared to the low-latitude clumps, dense cores are scarce in HLPCs. With synthetic observations, the densities of cores are constrained to be n c ≲ 105 cm−3 should they exist in HLPCs. Low-latitude clumps, Taurus clumps, and HLPCs form a sequence where a higher virial parameter corresponds to a lower dense-core detection rate. If HLPCs were affected by the Local Bubble, the scarcity should favor turbulence-inhibited rather than supernova-driven star formation. Studies of the formation mechanism of the L183 molecular cloud are warranted.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Type: cc-by
Publisher: American Astronomical Society
ISSN: 2041-8205
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 22 February 2024
Date of Acceptance: 22 January 2024
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2024 12:15

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