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Surface water quality modelling with data scarcity in semi-enclosed coastal regions encompassed distributed islands

Hashemi Monfared, Seyed Arman, Ahmadian, Reza ORCID:, Harbottle, Michael ORCID:, Perkins, Rupert ORCID:, Munday, Maxim ORCID:, Wright-Syed, Muaaz, Hoang, Thu-Huong Thi, Nguyen, Thi Thu Ha and Nguyen, Thi Lan Phuong 2024. Surface water quality modelling with data scarcity in semi-enclosed coastal regions encompassed distributed islands. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 302 , 108778. 10.1016/j.ecss.2024.108778

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Water quality variation in semi-enclosed urban coastal areas with different pollutant sources is a substantial issue. Pollutant entrapment has a significant impact on the lives of the local people. Surface water quality modelling often requires large datasets covering bathymetry, fluid and pollutants boundary conditions, sources and sinks. This is particularly challenging in regions with complex features and poor data availability, such as coastal water bodies featuring a large number of widely distributed islands and estuaries. In this paper, we developed a model of surface water quality and hydrodynamics for Ha Long Bay, in the North of Vietnam and includes 1969 islands, for a one-year period using a water quality dataset obtained for this study. The model utilized extracted bathymetric and geometric data from Admiralty Charts and Admiralty Tide Tables. Water quality coupled with the TELEMAC Model (WAQTEL) Biomass Module was employed to predict pollutant transport in the domain using point and diffused sources while field studies were conducted to collect data for the setting up and calibration of the water quality model. Thirty scattered sampling points were selected, and the water quality parameters were measured during two campaigns. The predicted water level and velocity values matched the local observation data well with a small error (RMSE = 0.19 and 0.16). Both NO3−-N and PO43--P were high near the shoreline and decrease gradually offshore. The maximum concentrations of NO3−-N and PO43--P reached 0.476 mg/L and 0.048 mg/L at the end of 2021 with the RMSE = 0.13 and 0.011, respectively. The levels of NO3−-N and PO43--P and their distributions showed that Ha Long Bay was eutrophic even during the COVID-19 lockdown period.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Business (Including Economics)
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0272-7714
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 10 May 2024
Date of Acceptance: 22 April 2024
Last Modified: 10 May 2024 14:38

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