Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Impacts of WWII bomb explosions on weathering damage of architectural heritage: Bath, England

Wang, Xiaoyu, Mol, Lisa ORCID:, Tucker, Maurice, Blenkinsop, Tom ORCID:, Gilbert, Oscar and Campbell, Oliver 2024. Impacts of WWII bomb explosions on weathering damage of architectural heritage: Bath, England. Heritage Science 12 (1) , 157. 10.1186/s40494-024-01262-w

[thumbnail of 40494_2024_Article_1262.pdf] PDF - Published Version
Download (11MB)


The effects of bomb impacts, including the explosive force and combustion associated with these impacts, are preserved in only a few cities across the UK. In particular, World War Two (WWII) has left scars across a wide range of structures as a result of air raids. On immovable heritage, such as architectural structures, these impacts commonly take the form of craters, fractures and fire damage to stonework. This instantaneous damage is subsequently exposed to environmental stresses, such as moisture cycling, thermal stress and the movement of soluble elements and can thus lead to further deterioration of the stone. In this study, Rock Surface Hardness (RSH) measurements, permeametry measurements and microscopic observations were selected to capture stone deterioration data from 80-year-old bomb impacts on two walls of the Labour Exchange in Bath (UK) for spatial distribution analysis (Kriging) in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results show that the weathering forms that were found on the two walls can be attributed to nine different types. They can provide quantitative assessment of damage caused by bomb explosions and combustion in the war. The increase in permeability of walls and craters is shown to be primarily caused by the bomb explosion and combustion, whereas the decrease of hardness is associated with subsequent stone deterioration processes. This indicates that the interplay of initial damage likely accelerates subsequent response to environmental stress, extending the initial damage patterns from the impact crater to larger areas of stonework.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Type: open-access
Publisher: SpringerOpen
ISSN: 2050-7445
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 17 May 2024
Date of Acceptance: 26 April 2024
Last Modified: 17 May 2024 08:15

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics