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Spatio-temporal analysis of LST, NDVI and SUHI in a coastal temperate city using local climate zone

Sharmin, Tania ORCID:, Chappell, Adrian ORCID: and Lannon, Simon ORCID: 2024. Spatio-temporal analysis of LST, NDVI and SUHI in a coastal temperate city using local climate zone. Energy and Built Environment 10.1016/j.enbenv.2024.06.002

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Extreme heat due to changing climate poses a new challenge for temperate climates. The challenge is further aggravated by inadequate research, policy, or preparedness to effectively respond and recover from its impacts. While urban morphology plays a crucial role in mitigating urban heat, it has received limited attention in urban planning, highlighting the need for further exploration, particularly in temperate regions. To illustrate the challenge and its potential mitigations, we use the example of the coastal temperate city of Cardiff. To establish the interrelations between urban morphology and urban heat island patterns, we explored the spatiotemporal variations in land surface temperature (LST), normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), and surface urban heat island (SUHI) to local climate zone (LCZ) classification for Cardiff. Results showed a significant variation in SUHI in the LCZ zones. Both LST and NDVI land were found to vary significantly across the LCZ zones demonstrating their association with the urban form and morphology of the locality. For built-up areas, a more compact built-environment with smaller vegetation cover and larger building density was 2.0°C warmer than the open built-environment when comparing the mean summer LSTs. On average, the natural classes exhibit a LST that is 8.0°C lower than the compact built-environment and 6.0°C lower than the open built-environment. Consequently, the high-density, built-up LCZs have a greater SUHI effect compared to the natural classes. Therefore, temperate climate cities will benefit from incorporating an open built-environment that has sufficient greenery and open spaces. These findings help determine the optimal urban form for temperate climates and develop heat mitigation strategies while planning, designing, or improving the new and existing urban areas. In addition, the LCZ map applied in this study for Cardiff will enable international comparison and testing of proven climate change adaptation and mitigation techniques for similar urban areas.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: In Press
Schools: Earth and Environmental Sciences
Additional Information: License information from Publisher: LICENSE 1: URL:, Start Date: 2024-06-11
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 2666-1233
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 June 2024
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2024 04:23

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