Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Which clinical features distinguish inflicted from non-inflicted brain injury? A systematic review

Maguire, Sabine Ann, Pickerd, Nicole, Farewell, Daniel ORCID:, Mann, Mala K., Tempest, Vanessa and Kemp, Alison Mary ORCID: 2009. Which clinical features distinguish inflicted from non-inflicted brain injury? A systematic review. Archives of Disease in Childhood 94 (11) , pp. 860-867. 10.1136/adc.2008.150110

Full text not available from this repository.


Aim: A systematic review of the scientific literature to define clinical indicators distinguishing inflicted (iBI) from non-inflicted brain injury (niBI). Methods: An all language literature search of 20 electronic databases, websites, references and bibliographies from 1970–2008 was carried out. Relevant studies were independently reviewed by two trained reviewers, with a third review where required. Inclusion criteria included primary comparative studies of iBI and niBI in children aged <18 years, with high surety of diagnosis describing key clinical features. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted, determining the positive predictive value (PPV) and odds ratios (OR) with p values for retinal haemorrhage, rib/long bone/skull fractures, apnoea, seizures and bruising to head/neck. Results: 8151 studies were identified, 320 were reviewed and 14 included, representing 1655 children, 779 with iBI. Gender was not a discriminatory feature. In a child with intracranial injury, apnoea (PPV 93%, OR 17.06, p<0.001) and retinal haemorrhage (PPV 71%, OR 3.504, p = 0.03) were the features most predictive of iBI. Rib fractures (PPV 73%, OR 3.03, p = 0.13) had a similar PPV to retinal haemorrhages, but there were less data for analysis. Seizures and long bone fractures were not discriminatory, and skull fracture and head/neck bruising were more associated with niBI, although not significantly so. Conclusions: This systematic review shows that apnoea and retinal haemorrhage have a high odds ratio for association with iBI. This review identifies key features that should be recorded in the assessment of children where iBI is suspected and may help clinicians to define the likelihood of iBI.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Academic & Student Support Service
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics > RJ101 Child Health. Child health services
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN: 0003-9888
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2023 15:31

Citation Data

Cited 145 times in Scopus. View in Scopus. Powered By Scopus® Data

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item