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Periodontal disease mechanisms - Reactive oxygen species: a potential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases

Waddington, Rachel J. ORCID:, Moseley, Ryan ORCID: and Embery, G. 2000. Periodontal disease mechanisms - Reactive oxygen species: a potential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Oral Diseases 6 (3) , pp. 138-151. 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2000.tb00325.x

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The pathological events leading to the destruction of the periodontium during inflammatory periodontal diseases are likely to represent complex interactions involving an imbalance in enzymic and non-enzymic degradative mechanisms. This paper aims to review the increasing body of evidence implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS), derived from many metabolic sources, in the pathogenesis of periodontal tissue destruction. ROS are generated predominantly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during an inflammatory response and are regarded as being highly destructive in nature. The detection of ROS oxidation products, the elevation of iron and copper ions, which catalyse the production of the most reactive radical species, and the identification of an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant activity within periodontal pockets, suggests a significant role for ROS in periodontal tissue destruction. In vitro studies have shown that ROS are capable of degrading a number of extracellular matrix components including proteoglycans, resulting in the modification of amino acid functional groups, leading to fragmentation of the core protein, whilst the constituent glycosaminoglycan chains undergo limited depolymerisation. The identification and characterisation of connective tissue metabolites in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) resulting from the degradation of periodontal tissues, notably alveolar bone, provides further evidence for a role for ROS in tissue destruction associated with inflammatory periodontal diseases.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Uncontrolled Keywords: periodontal diseases; reactive oxygen species; extracellular matrix; gingival crevicular fluid
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 1354-523X
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2022 08:50

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