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Planck early results: The Galactic cold core population revealed by the first all-sky survey

Ade, Peter Anthony ORCID:, Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Balbi, A., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Bernard, J. P., Bersanelli, M., Bhatia, R., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Cabella, P., Cantalupo, C. M., Cardoso, J. F., Catalano, A., Cayón, L., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. R., Chiang, L. Y., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Gasperis, G., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. M., Désert, F. X., Dickinson, C., Dobashi, K., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Dörl, U, Douspis, M., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., En\sslin, T. G., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giardino, G., Giraud-Héraud, Y., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, A., Hoyland, R. J., Huffenberger, K. M., Jaffe, A. H., Joncas, G., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knox, L., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. M., Lasenby, A., Laureijs, R. J.., Lawrence, C. R., Leach, S., Leonardi, R., Leroy, C., Linden-V\ornle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., MacTavish, C. J., Maffei,, B., Mandolesi, N., Mann, R., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P., Martínez-González, E., Marton, G., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Matthai, F., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., N\orgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Osborne, S., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Pelkonen, V. M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Poutanen, T., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. L., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Renault, C., Ricciardi, S., Riller, T., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, Giorgio, Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Smoot, G. F., Starck, J. L., Stivoli, F., Stolyarov, V., Sudiwala, Rashmikant V. ORCID:, Sygnet, J. F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Torre, J. P., Toth, V., Tristram, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Vittorio, N., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Ysard, N., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., Zahorecz, S. and Zonca, A. 2011. Planck early results: The Galactic cold core population revealed by the first all-sky survey. [Online]. Available at:

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We present the statistical properties of the first version of the Cold Core Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO), in terms of their spatial distribution, temperature, distance, mass, and morphology. We also describe the statistics of the Early Cold Core Catalogue (ECC, delivered with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue, ERCSC) that is the subset of the 915 most reliable detections of the complete catalogue. We have used the CoCoCoDeT algorithm to extract 10783 cold sources. Temperature and dust emission spectral index {\beta} values are derived using the fluxes in the IRAS 100 \mum band and the three highest frequency Planck bands. Temperature spans from 7K to 17K, and peaks around 13K. Data are not consistent with a constant value of {\beta} over the all temperature range. {\beta} ranges from 1.4 to 2.8 with a mean value around 2.1, and several possible scenarios are possible, including {\beta}(T) and the effect of multiple T components folded into the measurements. For one third of the objects the distances are obtained. Most of the detections are within 2 kpc in the Solar neighbourhood, but a few are at distances greater than 4 kpc. The cores are distributed from the deep Galactic plane, despite the confusion, to high latitudes (>30$^{\circle}$). The associated mass estimates range from 1 to $10^5$ solar masses. Using their physical properties these cold sources are shown to be cold clumps, defined as the intermediate cold sub-structures between clouds and cores. These cold clumps are not isolated but mostly organized in filaments associated with molecular clouds. The Cold Core Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO) is the first unbiased all-sky catalogue of cold objects. It gives an unprecedented statistical view to the properties of these potential pre-stellar clumps and offers a unique possibility for their classification in terms of their intrinsic properties and environment.

Item Type: Website Content
Date Type: Submission
Status: Submitted
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Additional Information: This paper is part of package of Planck early papers, labelled in their title by "Planck Early results:..." Corresponding Author: L. Montier (
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2022 09:06

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