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A systematic survey of loss-of-function variants in human protein-coding genes

MacArthur, Daniel G., Balasubramanian, Suganthi, Frankish, Adam, Huang, Ni, Morris, James, Walter, Klaudia, Jostins, Luke, Habegger, Lukas, Pickrell, Joseph K., Montgomery, Stephen B., Albers, Cornelis A., Zhang, Zhengdong D., Conrad, Donald F., Lunter, Gerton, Zheng, Hancheng, Ayub, Qasim, DePristo, Mark A., Banks, Eric, Hu, Min, Handsaker, Robert E., Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A., Fromer, Menachem, Jin, Mike, Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine, Khurana, Ekta, Ye, Kai, Kay, Mike, Saunders, Gary Ian, Suner, Marie-Marthe, Hunt, Toby, Barnes, If H. A., Amid, Clara, Carvalho-Silva, Denise R., Bignell, Alexandra H., Snow, Catherine, Yngvadottir, Bryndis, Bumpstead, Suzannah, Cooper, David Neil ORCID:, Xue, Yali, Romero, Irene Gallego, Wang, Jun, Li, Yingrui, Gibbs, Richard A., McCarroll, Steven A., Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T., Pritchard, Jonathan K., Barrett, Jeffrey C., Harrow, Jennifer, Hurles, Matthew E., Gerstein, Mark B. and Tyler-Smith, Chris 2012. A systematic survey of loss-of-function variants in human protein-coding genes. Science 335 (6070) , pp. 823-828. 10.1126/science.1215040

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Genome-sequencing studies indicate that all humans carry many genetic variants predicted to cause loss of function (LoF) of protein-coding genes, suggesting unexpected redundancy in the human genome. Here we apply stringent filters to 2951 putative LoF variants obtained from 185 human genomes to determine their true prevalence and properties. We estimate that human genomes typically contain ~100 genuine LoF variants with ~20 genes completely inactivated. We identify rare and likely deleterious LoF alleles, including 26 known and 21 predicted severe disease–causing variants, as well as common LoF variants in nonessential genes. We describe functional and evolutionary differences between LoF-tolerant and recessive disease genes and a method for using these differences to prioritize candidate genes found in clinical sequencing studies.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science
ISSN: 0036-8075
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2022 09:44

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