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Exposure to anthrax toxin alters human leukocyte expression of Anthrax toxin receptor 1

Ingram, Rebecca J., Harris, Alison, Ascough, Stephanie, Metan, Gökhan, Doganay, Mehmet, Baillie, Les ORCID:, Williamson, E. Diane, Dyson, Hugh, Robinson, John H., Sriskandan, Shiranee and Altmann, Daniel M. 2013. Exposure to anthrax toxin alters human leukocyte expression of Anthrax toxin receptor 1. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 173 (1) , pp. 84-91. 10.1111/cei.12090

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Anthrax is a toxin-mediated disease; the lethal effects of which are initiated by the binding of Protective antigen (PA) with one of three reported cell surface toxin receptors (ANTXR). Receptor binding has been shown to influence host susceptibility to the toxins. Despite this crucial role for ANTXR in the outcome of disease, and the reported immunomodulatory consequence of the anthrax toxins during infection, little is known about ANTXR expression on human leukocytes. We characterised the expression levels of ANTXR1 (TEM8) on human leukocytes using flow cytometry. In order to assess the effect of prior toxin exposure on ANTXR1 expression levels, leukocytes from individuals with no known exposure, those exposed to toxin through vaccination and convalescent individuals were analysed. Donors could be defined as either ‘low’ or ‘high’ expressers based on the percentage of ANTXR1 positive monocytes detected. Prior exposure to toxins appears to modulate ANTXR1 expression, exposure through active infection being associated with lower receptor expression. A significant correlation between low receptor expression and high anthrax toxin-specific IFNγ responses was observed in previously infected individuals. We propose that there is an attenuation of ANTXR1 expression post-infection which may be a protective mechanism that has evolved to prevent re-infection.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Pharmacy
Subjects: R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anthrax; ANTXR1; lymphocyte; monocyte; receptor; TEM 8; toxin
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN: 0009-9104
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2022 11:06

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